Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

EARTHQUAKES

EARTHQUAKE
Forms of wave energy that
are transmitted through a
bedrock.
HYPOCENTER
The point within the earth along the geological
faults where the earthquake originates.
EPICENTER
The point on earths surface directly above the
focus.
FAULT
Large cracks in the Earths surface where parts of
the crust move in relation to one another.
FOUR PARTS OF A FAULT
FAULT PLANE- the area where the fault occurs.
It may be vertical or sloping.
FAULT TRACE- a line which may be visible or
not that occurs on earths surface.
HANGING WALL- the block of crust above the
fault.
FOOTWALL- the block of crust below the fault.
CLASSIFICATION OF FAULTS
NORMAL FAULT- a fault in which the hanging wall
moves down relative to the footwall as a result of
extension.
REVERSE FAULT (thrust fault) a fault in which the
hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall as a
result of compression.
STRIKE-SLIP FAULT- a fault in which two blocks of
crust slide past each other on the same plane.
SEISMOLOGY
The study of earthquakes and seismic
waves that move through and around the
earth.
SEISMIC WAVES
The waves of energy caused by the
sudden breaking of rock within the earth
or an explosion.
TWO KINDS OF SEISMIC WAVES
SURFACE WAVES- waves that
can only travel along the
surface.
BODY WAVES- waves that
travel below the surface of
Earth.
TYPES OF
SURFACE WAVES:
LOVE WAVES- more transverse to the direction of the
propagation but with no vertical motion. (produce entirely
horizontal motion.)
It cause the most damage to buildings and other structures.
The fastest surface waves and moves the ground from side-
to-side.
RAYLEIGH WAVES (ground roll)- cause rock particles to
move upward, up, backward and down in a path that
contains the direction of the wave travel.
Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due to
Rayleigh wave.
TYPES OF BODY
WAVES:
COMPRESSIONAL OR PRIMARY WAVES- can move through all states of
matter.
The fastest kind of seismic wave.
Dogs can feel this before an earthquake happens.
People can only feel the bump and shake of these waves.
SHEAR OR SECONDARY WAVES- can only
travel through solid materials.
Types of
Earthquakes
Tectonic Earthquake
Volcanic Earthquake
Collapse Earthquake
Explosion Earthquake
Tectonic Plate
One that occurs when the earths
crust breaks due to geological forces
on rocks and adjoining plates that
cause physical and chemical changes.
Volcanic Earthquake
Any earthquake that results from
tectonic forces which occur in
conjunction with volcanic activity.
Collapse Earthquake
Small earthquakes in
underground caverns and mines
that are caused by seismic waves
produced from the explosion of
rock on the surface.
Explosion Earthquake
An earthquake that is the
result of the detonation of a
nuclear and/or chemical
device.
Causes of Earthquake
Tectonic Movement
Volcanic Activity
Dislocation of the Earths crust
Adjustment in inner rock beds
Effects of Earthquake
Dismantling of buildings, bridge and other
structures.
Earthquakes originate sea waves called
tsunamis.
Landslides
Constructive Effects:
Formation of hot springs