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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
LECTURE 2

PowerPoint Slides

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INTRODUCTION
Society is encompassed of people and their culture.

Culture = underlying values, beliefs, rituals, customs, artifacts and codes


of practice.

Culture and subculture affects how organisational transactions are


conducted.

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Definition of culture
Particular practices and values common to a population living in a
given setting (Ross)

Complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws,


customs. . .acquired by man as a member of society (Tylor)

Derivative of experience, more of less organized, learned or created by


individuals of a population, including those images. . . and their
interpretations, from past generations, contemporaries, or formed by
themselves (Schwartz)

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Scheins Iceberg Model of Culture

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Artifacts
Artifacts is an object made and develop by human, typically is relates to
historical interest and cultural influences.

Artifacts is the most tangible aspects that symbolize organisational


culture, such as the type of people selected and employed in an
organization (personalities, levels of education, etc.), traditions and
rituals, architecture, technology, heroes, logos, myths , stories, and so
on.

Architecture is an example here, how the rich and powerful often build
the most majestic and impressive structure and buildings as a signs of
success or artifacts of power

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Artifacts

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Establishment of KLCC
The Petronas Twin Towers design has been adopted from
Islamic geometric forms, culture and traditions. The two
interlocked squares creates an eight-pointed star from an
bird eye's view and superimposing 8 circular arcs in inner
angles of the star, hence, creating a 16-branched form. In
each of the 16 inner angles are smaller curved column
covers expressing the main structural columns of the
building.

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Values
These represent the invisible facets of organisational culture
and include the norms and beliefs that employees express
when discussing organisational issues, such as the value placed
on and rewards offered for honesty, trust and effort.

Values can also be represented in mission statements

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Values
AUDI - We delight customers worldwide therefore plays a key role on
the path to becoming the leading premium brand.

Mc Donald - To be our customers' favorite place and way to eat.

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Basic Assumptions
Members worldviews are shape on basic assumptions on norms and
beliefs, which guide attitude and behavior but are not clearly expressed,
making it harder to understand and observe them.

Managers also always face challenges to change something that cannot


be seen, but what is certain is that basic assumptions profoundly
influence a persons behavior and actions.

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Handys four dimension of
organisational cultures
Cultures is divided into four major types:
Power culture,
Role culture,
Task culture, and
Person or support culture.
Handy describe that the four dimension are usually tied to a particular
design of organization and structure.

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Power Culture
Spiders web has been illustrated by Handy to relate with power culture.

A spider web is surrounded by a widening circles and the spider sitting is in


the center. This shows that the key to the whole organisation sits in the
middle and surrounded by intimates and influence .

Organisations with power culture will respond and feedback quickly to any
events, but they are their continued success is heavily dependent on the
abilities of the person in the middle; succession and performance is a
critical issue.

They will try to attract and influence people who take risks and are
politically minded with power orientated mentality and who do not rate
security highly.

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Power Culture
Depend on individual rather than group or committees.

Performance is evaluated on results in this type of power culture


organisations.

In some extreme cases, a power culture can be classified as


dictatorship, but it may not need to be.

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Role Culture
Building that are supported with columns and beams has been illustrated by
handy as role culture, each beam and column has its significant and specific
role to be played in keeping the building strong.

Role culture are well structured and highly formalized, bound with
paperwork and act according to regulations, hierarchy, authority and
dominate relations.

Position is the main source of power in the role culture as well as


procedures and rules are the most important influences.

The effectiveness of this culture relies on the rationality of the allocation of


responsibility and work rather than on a person personalities.

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Role Culture
Its difficult and hard to adapt to change; it is normally a slow process
and difficult to understand the need for change and to respond
appropriately under the role culture.

The hierarchical is form of bureaucracies, where power derives from the


personal position rather than expert power.

These organizations have good and consistent system and able to


predict well the need for the future.

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Task Culture
Task culture can be classified as job or project oriented organization, and its
structure can be best determine as a net.

Small team approach is utilize by this culture, where individuals that are
highly skilled, train and specialized in their own area of expertise.

Teamwork is important to produce results and control over people in these


organization can be challenging.

When the whole organisation is unsuccessful due to limitation of resources,


the tendency to change to a role or power culture is always there.

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Person Culture
Person culture can be classified as unique or unusual culture in which
they believe themselves to be the most powerful or superior in the
organisation.

Not many organisations exist or produce this kind of culture,


Consultants, freelance worker, architects as partnership often have this
person orientation behavior. A corporate may strive for the person
culture in organisational form, but as it develops it often becomes role
culture, task culture or power culture.

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Handys four types of
organisational cultures

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Conflict & Culture
Bureaucratic managers try to avoid conflicts by using strategies.

Organizational culture is regarded as the most effective factor of an


organization success and one can identify and explore the root of failure
or success.

organizational culture can empower the employees so that they may


remove the basic inhibitors to survival in and adjustability to
environment as well as may found internal processes and may establish
organization survival on time.

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Conflict & Culture
The success of conflict resolution relies on well managing the
interaction of the handling approaches adopted by conflicting parties.

At every level, cultures affects on how individuals would recognize the


situation of conflict and what is the favorable approach for negotiation.

the types of handling interpersonal conflict can be differentiated based


on two basic dimensions: concern for self and concern for others.

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Tutorial
1. Discuss FIVE (5) culture that your family
beliefs in and still been practicing by your
family. (20 marks)
2. Explain FOUR (4) Handys dimension of
organizational cultures. (20 marks)

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