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Metanoia, Inc.

Critical Systems Thinking

Metro Ethernet:
Understanding Key Underlying
Technologies
Metanoia, Inc.
consultants@metanoia-inc.com
+1-888-641-0082
http://www.metanoia-inc.com
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Metanoia, Inc.
Critical Systems Thinking

Who is Metanoia, Inc.?


Specialty technology consultancy founded in mid-2001, with HQ in Mountain View, California
Undertakes deep-dive technical consulting in telecom network, systems, software and chip
architecture and design for clients across the world
Services have spanned 4 continents, with clients in: North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.
Principals provided services in technology strategies, architecture and design trade-offs, product
development, hardware/software architecture, and knowledge enhancement to organizations that
include large equipment manufacturers, international, national and regional ISPs, premier metro/access
systems startups, network planning tool vendors, established software and technology houses and
leading component and semiconductor vendors
Principals are technologists at the forefront of new developments, as leaders, creators,
implementers, researchers, academics, strategists, and advisors in the US and abroad
Expertise spans Layer 1 through Layer 4, and wireline (optical, Ethernet, IP/ATM, SONET/SDH) through
wireless (Wi-Fi, cross-layer design, Wi-Max, cellular data, 2.5-3G)
125+ man years of technology design and development, and technology management experience,
having worked at leading global corporations, such as Apple, AOL Time Warner, BBN, Cisco, 3Com,
Fujitsu, LSI Logic, Motorola, Tellabs, Siemens, Nokia, Tibco, and Qualcomm, and having worked
at/consulted to corporates in the US and abroad for almost the last decade
70+ patents collectively issued/pending
Advanced graduate degrees from some of the most distinguished universities in the world the
University of California, Stanford University, Iowa State University, the University of Texas, the
University of Waterloo, and the Indian Institute of Technology
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Metanoia, Inc.
Critical Systems Thinking

Workshop Outline
Legacy networks & Ethernet over legacy networks
Value propositions and business drivers
Ethernet over SDH/SONET

Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)


MEF architecture
E-Line and E-LAN services
Native Ethernet as Carrier-class transport
Provider Bridges
Provider Backbone Bridges (PBB), Provider Backbone Transport (PBT)

MPLS an enabler for Ethernet services


Layer 2 VPNs: VPWS, VPLS, H-VPLS
Advanced concepts: traffic engineering, QoS, OAM, resilience
Conclusions

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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet over
Legacy Networks
Metanoia, Inc.
Critical Systems Thinking

Issues with Legacy Networks


Low bandwidth

No flexibility to scale

High cost of installation

Slow provisioning

Bandwidth growth inflexible/non-linear


Limited by multiplexing hierarchy

TDM-based access: inefficient for converged data


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Critical Systems Thinking

Next-Generation SDH
Customer
Network
Central NG-SDH
Office NG ADM
Switch

Core NG-SDH Ethernet


Network Customer
NG ADM
Network
STM/4/16
Cross Ring
Connect
NG NG-SDH
ADM

Customer
Ethernet Network

Customer
Network

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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet-over-SDH
Framing protocol
Encapsulates Ethernet frames in SDH payloads

Mapping of SDH payload to SDH channels


Virtual concat.: for allocation of non-contiguous VCs

Flow control mechanism


Avoids packet drops due to speed mismatch between SDH and
Ethernet

Mechanism to increase/decrease allocated SDH bandwidth


Add or remove VCs
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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet-over-SDH (contd)
Very popular in carriers with installed base of SDH rings
E.g. BSNL in India

Good deployment choice when traffic primarily circuit


switched

Inefficient if major traffic is bursty packet-switched data


Solution: Carrier-class Ethernet!

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Critical Systems Thinking

Metro Ethernet Value Propositions


Lower per-user provisioning costs
Technically simple relative to TDM ckts.
Due to large installed base

Efficient and flexible transport


Wide range of speeds: 128 Kbps--10 Gbps
QoS capabilities

Ease of inter-working
Plug-and-play feature

Ubiquitous adoption
The technology of choice in enterprise networks
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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet Business Drivers


Business connectivity
Storage networks
Data centers
Video conferencing

Residential services
Triple-play services (IPTV)
On-line gaming
High-speed Internet access

Wireless backhaul
Reduced cost, complexity for mobile operators
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Critical Systems Thinking

Metro Ethernet Services


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Critical Systems Thinking

Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)


Industry forum at forefront of Carrier Ethernet
standardization
Carrier Ethernet architecture
Ethernet services
Founded in 2001. Currently approx. 120 members

Technical Sub-committees
Architecture
Services
Protocols and Transport
Management

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Critical Systems Thinking

MEN Architectural Components


T T
S S

End Customer Customer End


Network
MEN Network
User User

End user Interface End user Interface


UNI Reference Point UNI Reference Point

Ethernet Virtual Connection

End-to-End Ethernet Flow

Ethernet Flow
Unidirectional stream of Ethernet frames
UNI
Interface used to interconnect MEN subscriber to provider
EVC
Defines association between UNI for delivering Ethernet flow across MEN

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Critical Systems Thinking

MEN Layer Model

Application Service
Layer
(IP, MPLS, PDH, E1/E3, SDH)

Ethernet Service
Layer

Transport Service
Layer
(802.1, SONET/SDH, MPLS)

MEN Layer Model

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Critical Systems Thinking

MEF Services Definition Framework


Service Type
Construct used to create broad range of services

Service Attributes
Defines characteristics of a service type

Attribute Parameters
Set of parameters with various options

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Critical Systems Thinking

Service Types
E-Line
EVC1
Point-to-point Ethernet Virtual
Circuit (EVC)
EVC2

E-LAN
Multipoint-to-multipoint
Ethernet Virtual Circuit

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Critical Systems Thinking

Service Attributes
Physical Interface
Medium, speed, mode, MAC layer

Traffic Parameters
CIR, CBS, PIR, MBS

QoS Parameters
Availability, delay, jitter, loss

Service Multiplexing
Multiple instances of EVCs on a given physical I/F

Bundling
Multiple VLAN IDs (VID) mapped to single EVC at UNI

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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet Services
Ethernet Private Line (EPL)
Uses E-Line
Does not allow service multiplexing
High degree of transparency
Low delay, delay variation, and packet loss ratio

Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)


Uses E-Line
Allows for service multiplexing
Need not provide full transparency

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Critical Systems Thinking

Service Types and Ethernet Services


Service Types

E-Line E-LAN
(p2p connectivity) (mp2mp connectivity)

Ethernet Private Ethernet Virtual Ethernet Private Ethernet Virtual Private


Line (E-line) Private Line (E-VPL) LAN (E-LAN) LAN (E-VPLAN)

Ethernet Services

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Critical Systems Thinking

Native Ethernet as
Carrier-class Transport
Metanoia, Inc.
Critical Systems Thinking

Requirements for Carrier-class Ethernet


Scalability
Network should support millions of subscribers

Protection and restoration


50ms resilience

Quality-of-Service (QoS)
Ability to offer differentiated levels of service

Service Monitoring and Fault Management

Support for TDM traffic


Seamless integration with legacy networks

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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet Ring
Ethernet
Switch

Ethernet Ethernet
Switch Switch

Core 1/10 Gigabit Ethernet


Network
Customer
Ethernet Ring Network

Ethernet
Switch
Ethernet Customer
Network

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Critical Systems Thinking

Native Ethernet in Metro Access


How does one create the notion of a virtual circuit?
VLAN tagging with point-to-point VLAN

VLAN stacking
Outer tag service instance; Inner tag individual customer
802.1Q in 802.1Q (Q-in-Q) - IEEE 802.1ad

6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 4bytes 4bytes

C-DA C-SA S-TAG C-TAG Client data FCS

C-DA: Customer Destination MAC


C-SA: Customer Source MAC
C-TAG: IEEE 802.1q VLAN Tag
C-FCS: Customer FCS
S-TAG: IEEE 802.1ad S-VLAN Tag
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Provider Bridge (IEEE 802.1ad) Critical Systems Thinking

Architecture

CE-B
CES
Customer
CE-A UNI-B Network
Customer
Network
CES
UNI-A

CES
Spanning tree

UNI-C

CE-C
CE: Customer Equipment

UNI: User-to-Network Interface


Customer
CES: Core Ethernet Switch/Bridge Network
P-VLAN: Provider VLAN

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Critical Systems Thinking

Limitations of Provider Bridge Scalability


Limited to 4096 service instances

Core switches must all MAC addresses

Broadcast storms ensue due to learning

MAC address tables explode!

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Critical Systems Thinking

Provider Backbone Bridging (802.1ah)


Encapsulate customer MAC with provider MAC at edge
Edge switch adds 24-bit service tag (I-SID), not VLAN tag

Core switches need only learn edge switch MAC adds.

6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 5bytes 6bytes 6bytes 4bytes 4bytes

B-DA B-SA B-TAG I-TAG C-DA C-SA C-TAG Client data B-FCS

S-TAG: IEEE 802.1ad S-VLAN Tag


B-DA: IEEE 802.1ah Backbone Destination
B-SA: IEEE 802.1ah Backbone Source MAC
I-TAG: IEEE 802.1ah Service Tag

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Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) Critical Systems Thinking

Architecture
CPE B CPE A CPE B
CPE A CPE C CPE D

Provider backbone Provider backbone


network (802.1ad) 802.1ad network (802.1ad)

Provider backbone
network (802.1ah)

Provider backbone
network (802.1ad) Provider backbone
network (802.1ad)
802.1q

CPE C CPE B
CPE B CPE A CPE D
CPE C
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Critical Systems Thinking

Benefits of PBB
Scalability
Addresses limitations of 4096 service instances

Robustness
Isolates provider network from broadcast storms

Security
Provider need switch frames only on provider addresses

Simplicity
Provider & customers can plan networks independently
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Critical Systems Thinking

Traffic Engineering in PBB


Via Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)

Maps a VLAN to ST or multiple VLANs to ST

Enables use of links that would otherwise be idle in ST


Eliminates wasted bandwidth but

Too slow for protection switching

Not suitable for complex mesh topologies

Difficult to predict QoS

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Challenges with an All-Ethernet Critical Systems Thinking

Metro Service
Restriction on # of customers 4096 VLANs!

Service monitoring

Scaling of Layer 2 backbone

Service provisioning
Carrying a VLAN is not a simple task!

Inter-working with legacy deployments

Need hybrid architectures

Multiple L2 domains connected via IP/MPLS backbone


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Critical Systems Thinking

What Solutions do we Have?

Ethernet-based Architecture
Provider Bridge (802.1ad) in edge
Provider Backbone Transport (PBT) in Core

Hybrid Architecture
802.1ad in the edge
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in core

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Critical Systems Thinking

Provider Backbone Transport (PBT)


Connection-oriented, traffic-engineered Ethernet tunnels

Replaces spanning tree control plane with either a:


Management plane
External control plane

No learning !
Forwarding info. provided by management plane

Forwarding done on MAC + VID (60-bit) address


VID is not network global; however, MAC + VID is
B-MAC identifies destination
B-VID identifies per-destination alternate paths

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Critical Systems Thinking

PBT Architecture

Central TE Module

PE2
PE1
Customer
Customer
Network
Network

SA : PE1 SA : PE1
DA : PE2 DA : PE2
VLAN 22 VLAN 33

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Critical Systems Thinking

Benefits of PBT
No learning
Eliminates undesirable broadcast storms
Resolves MAC flooding problem
Addresses scaling by forwarding on MAC + VID-highly scalable

Protection
Sets-up backup paths
50ms restoration possible

QoS support available

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Critical Systems Thinking

MPLS An Enabler for


Ethernet Services:
Fundamentals & Operations
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Critical Systems Thinking

Basic Concept of MPLS


DA Next hop N/w DA Next hop N/w
router Int. router Int.
129.89.10.x 198.168.7.6 1 129.89.10.x 129.89.10.1 1 Routing Table
179.69.x.x 198.168.7.6 1 179.69.x.x 179.69.42.3 2

128.89.10.x
In Out Address Prefix N/w In Out Address Prefix N/w
label label
128.89.10.12
label Int. label Int.
X 5 128.89.10.x 1 Label Table
3 128.89.10.x 1 3
X 4 179.69.x.x 1 4 7 179.69.x.x 2 R3

Advertises binding
1 <5, 128.89.10.x>

R1 1 R2
2
198.168.7.6
Advertises bindings Advertises binding
<3, 128.89.10.x> <7, 179.69.x.x>
<4, 179.69.x.x>
179.69.x.x
Routing fills routing table
R4
Signaling fills label forwarding table 179.69.42.3
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Critical Systems Thinking

Basic Concept of MPLS

Pop
label 5
In Out Address Prefix N/w In Out Address Prefix N/w Forward
label label Int. label label Int. packet
X 3 128.89.10.x 1 3 5 128.89.10.x 1 5 128.89.10.x
X 4 179.69.x.x 1 4 7 179.69.x.x 2 128.89.10.12

R3
Swap
Label 5

3
1

R1 1 R2
2
3 198.168.7.6
Push
Label
Packet arrives
DA=128.89.10.25
179.69.x.x
R3 R4

179.69.42.3
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So what about MPLS Control and Critical Systems Thinking

Forwarding?
Superset of conventional router control
Control Distribute info. via n/w layer routing protocols (OSPF, BGP, etc.)
Component
Algos. to convert routing info. into forwarding table:
Create binding from FEC label

Assign & distribute labels to peer LSRs via signaling

Label switching forwarding table (or label information base LIB)

Incoming Label First Subentry Second Subentry


Map (for multicast or load balancing)
Outgoing label Outgoing label
Incoming
Outgoing inf. Outgoing inf.
Label
Next hop address Next hop address
Forwarding
Component Next hop label forwarding entry (NHFLE)

Forwarding algo = label swapping, independent of control


component (implementable in optimized H/W or S/W)
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What does a Label Represent? The Critical Systems Thinking

Issue of Label Granularity


Packets form Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)
Treated identically by participating routers
Assigned the same label

Membership in FEC must be determinable from IP header + other info. that


ingress router has about the packet

Entities that may be grouped into an FEC are flexible. E.g. FEC could be:
Connection between two IP ports on two hosts or between IP hosts
Traffic headed for a particular network with same TOS bits
All destination networks with a certain prefix
Manually configured connection
Traffic belonging to a customer or department VLAN
Traffic of a given application voice, video, plain data, management traffic
and many others

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Critical Systems Thinking

Lets Recap: Elements of MPLS


Label Forwarding
Use data link addressing. E.g. ATM VPI/VCI, FR DLCI
Shim header between data link and IP header
Data
Plane Variable 4 bytes 20 bytes

MPLS shim Higher Layers


L2 header header L3 IP header

1 bit
EXP/
Label S TTL
CoS

20 bits 3 bits 8 bits

Label Creation and Binding


Control
Plane Label Assignment and Distribution
Ride piggyback on routing protocols, where possible (BGP)
Separate label distribution protocol RSVP, LDP

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Primary Label Assignment and Critical Systems Thinking

Distribution Modes
1 Requests
Edge LSR
2

6
5 3

4
Downstream-on-demand
with Ordered Control
Assignments Edge LSR

1 Requests
Edge LSR
2

Assignments 2
3 3

4
Downstream-on-demand
with Independent Control
Edge LSR

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Critical Systems Thinking

Advantages of MPLS
Original justification
Availability of fast, amortized, ATM hardware; emergence of H/W
forwarding engines has practically eliminated this

Current justifications
Separates forwarding from control, allowing
Routing functionality to evolve independently of forwarding algorithm
MPLS to control non-packet technologies: SONET/SDH ckts., lightpaths

Provides explicit, manageable IP routes


Enables policy routing and traffic engineering
Offers TE for Ethernet tunnels in metro-Ethernet environments

Facilitates scalable hierarchical routing

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Critical Systems Thinking

The Utility of Hierarchical Label Switching

Edge LSRs

Swap

Swap Core LSRs


and Push Pop

Concept is similar to VLAN stacking in PBT we saw earlier


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Critical Systems Thinking

Hierarchical Label Stacking/Switching

Inside a transit AS, each core router must keep track of all
networks that might be reached through it

With hierarchical labels, only edge routers need know what


networks might eventually be reached through them

All transit traffic can be made to tunnel through core routers


using LSPs with stacked labels

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Explicit Manageable Routes -- Policy Critical Systems Thinking

routing, Traffic engineering


Carriers want certain traffic to go over certain routes. Such
network engineering:
Keeps network loads balanced
Enhances network stability and reliability
Enables better QoS and performance assurances
Allows carriers to meet customer SLAs

Constraint-based routing together with MPLS allows carriers to


Bind Ethernet tunnels to an LSP,
Place (or route) LSP over the desired sequence of LSRs in the n/w

TE tunnels are helpful for VPLS-based carrier Ethernet n/ws

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Critical Systems Thinking

IP/MPLS-based Layer 2 VPNs


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Critical Systems Thinking

L2 VPN Components

VC LSP
A A

Emulated
PE1 LAN A PE2

B Routed B
backbone
AC
Emulated
LAN B
PE3

What does the P1-PE2


connection really look like?

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Critical Systems Thinking

L2 VPN Component Details

6 PW Signaling

PE1 PE2
From CE
devices 5 PSN Tunnel

3 PWs

Routed backbone
1 ACs 2 From CE
with P routers
Bridge devices
Module Emulated LAN
4 Forwarder
Instance
Emulated LAN
Interface

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Critical Systems Thinking

VPLS Network Overview

PW A
LAN Service (full mesh)
VSI VSI

VSI
CE L3/MPLS
VSI
Backbone
B

B
CE

AC
A VSI Tunnel LAN Service
(full mesh)

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Critical Systems Thinking

VPLS Protocols Involved


Control Ethernet MP-iBGP (PW) + RSVP-TE /LDP (tunnel) Ethernet
Plane STP Targeted LDP (PW) + LDP (tunnel) STP
A

BGP/Targeted LDP
PE PE

CE LSP or PSN Tunnel


B

B
CE

Ethernet Ethernet/MPLS Ethernet


Data Ethernet or Ethernet or
Ethernet/IPSec
Plane Ethernet in IP/ Ethernet/GRE Ethernet in IP/
ATM/FR/SDH/ ATM/FR/SDH/
SONET SONET
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Critical Systems Thinking

Operational Characteristics of VPLS


Operational Requirement Realized Via
MAC address learning and
- VSI Forwarder
switching, work with 802.1p/q
- Bridge Module
tags and VLANs

Flooding pkts. with unknowns


Frame replication on PWs
broadcast, or multicast address
Provider edge signaling inform
- Targeted LDP
PE's to autoconfigure, and of
- BGP
membership, tunnelling
- BGP
VPLS membership discovery
- Configuration

Inter-provider connectivity Globally unique VPLS ID


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Data Plane: Flooding, Address Critical Systems Thinking

Learning and Forwarding


Src. MAC = 09:10:01:45:00:AB
1 Dest. MAC = 08:00:69:02:01:FC

3
A

VSI 2 VSI
CE ?

VSI
PWs PE2
PE1

B 2

PE3 PE4 B
A
VSI
VSI
CE
3

All address unknown frames (unicast, multicast, broadcast)


flooded over corresponding PWs to all relevant PEs only
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Critical Systems Thinking

Address Learning
Layer 2 reachability directly learned in data plane

Use standard learning bridge functions for local MACs

PW-based association for remote MACs


Allow PE to determine from which physical port or LSP a given MAC
address came

VSI FIB keeps mapping between Ethernet MAC PW to use

Qualified Learning Unqualified Learning


- Each customer VLAN is its own - All customer VLANs are part of
VPLS instance the same VPLS
- Has its own PW mesh and brdcast - One PW mesh and single brdcast
domain domain
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Critical Systems Thinking

Address Learning Example

Src. MAC = 08:AA:FC:01:10:DE (S1)


2
Dest. MAC = FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF (D1)
(broadcast) 4

1 VSI A
Inbound
CE
VC LSP Label = 1002
i/f1 i/f2
i/f1

VSI PE1 PE2


3 Outbound
Local Learning VC LSP Label = 2001 Dest. VC
Tunnel Out I/F
MAC Label
S1 1002 - i/f1

PE3 Remote
Learning

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Critical Systems Thinking

Forwarding and Encapsulation


Forwarding requires ability to
Dynamically learn MAC addresses on
Physical ports
Pseudowire VCs (VC LSPs)
Forward/replicate pkts. across physical ports and VC LSPs

Encapsulation
PW header applied to Ethernet packet w/o preamble + FCS
VLAN tag denoting customers VPLS instance can be stripped at
ingress, reapplied at egress

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Tunnel and PW Topology and Critical Systems Thinking

Loop Freedom
Dest. MAC = 08:00:69:02:01:FC PW A
? (full mesh)
VSI
VSI
PE1 PE2

VSI
CE VSI
B

AC CE
A
Tunnel
(full mesh)
VSI PE3 PE4

Full mesh of PW and tunnels deployed


Tunnels
Help transport the PW payload
Aggregate traffic from multiple PWs
Pseudowires demultiplex the L2 traffic traversing tunnels
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Critical Systems Thinking

Scaling VPLS: Hierarchical VPLS


Base VPLS requires full mesh of VC LSPs between PE routers
Adequate for PE routers in CO multiple customers aggregated
Inadequate for PE routers in MTU basements!
MTU MTU

PE PE

MTU MTU

PE PE

LSP explosion
Operational nightmare!

PE
MTU
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Critical Systems Thinking

Hierarchical VPLS Advantages


MTU MTU

PE PE
Hub PE

MTU Core VC MTU


LSP mesh

PE Spoke PE
VCs
(VLL or Q-in-Q)
Benefits
Simplifies signaling
Reduces pkt. replication
PE
MTU Simplifies MTU
Scalable inter-domain VPLS
Simplifies new site addition
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Hierarchical VPLS: Case Study for Critical Systems Thinking

a Metro Region
100 MTUs; 10 customers/MTU; 2 VPLS/cust.; 100 stations/VPLS
VPLSs/MTU = 10x2 = 20
MTU100 MTU91
MACs/MTU = 20x100 = 2000 CE CE

MTU1 MTU 100


PE PE MTU1
Hub PE MTU90
CE
CE

MTU2 MTU99 MTU10 PE PE MTU81

PE PE CE
CE

PE

PE PE CE CE
MTU3 MTU40 MTU31 MTU40

No hierarchy PE supports Hierarchy (10 MTU/PE) PE supports


2000 MACs 2000 x 10 = 20,000 MACs
LDP/BGP sessions = (100x99)/2 x LDP/BGP sessions = (10x9)/2 x 200 = 9000
20 = 245,000 # of spoke VLLs = 10 x 20 = 200
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Critical Systems Thinking

Benefits of IP/MPLS-based L2 VPNs


Separation of administrative responsibilities

Migration from traditional L2 VPNs: seamless transport of Ethernet


services

Privacy of routing

Layer 3 independence

Less operational overhead

Ease of configuration (?)

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Critical Systems Thinking

Advanced Features:
Traffic Engineering,
Resilience, OAM, QoS
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Critical Systems Thinking

Traffic Engineering Concepts

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Critical Systems Thinking

Constraint Based Routing


A class of routing systems that computes routes through a
network subject to a set of constraints and requirements

QoS-based Routing Policy-based Routing

Path of flows determined by Path/routing decision based


Knowledge of resource on administrative policy
availability in network
QoS requirements of flows

Can be on-line or off-line

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Critical Systems Thinking

CB Routing System
Inputs
Resources
Flow/path attributes:
required b/w, hop count, ...
Resource attributes: Attributes
Topology
properties of nodes/links
Network topology & state
Constraint-Based
Routing Process
Outputs
Computed feasible path Feasible Path
ERO {1,3,4,5}
Explicit route of the path 3

5
1
4

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Critical Systems Thinking

MPLS-based Resilience for the Metro

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Critical Systems Thinking

Fundamental Characteristics of RSVP


Allows apps. to signal QoS requests to n/w, and n/w to respond
with success or failure

Designed to transport
Classification info. (Sender_Template)
Allows flows with specific QoS reqs. to be recognized

Traffic specs of source/sender (Tspec)


QoS needs of receivers (Rspec)

Soft-state protocol
Path/Resv transmitted periodically to refresh reservation
Refresh Reduction [RFC2961] has practically eliminated original
scalability concerns with use of soft state

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Critical Systems Thinking

Basic Operation of RSVP-TE


Path (Label_Req) Path (Label_Req)

A B C D E

Resv Resv Resv Resv


Label=21 Label=49 Label=7 Label=5

Path Message Resv Message


RSVP Header RSVP Header
Application for which RSVP
Same as that in Path Msg.
SESSION reservation is to be made SESSION
Identifies pkts. of the sender Specifies senders that may
SENDER_TEMPLATE STYLE use the reserved resources
SENDER_TSPEC Defines traffic output by sender LABEL Label assigned to this hop

LABEL_REQUEST Request for label on this hop RRO Record route taken by Path
Specific path to which flow is
ERO/RRO RSpec QoS desired by receiver
to be bound
SESSION_ATTRIBUTE Flow for which QoS is
LSP attributes for this sender SENDER_TEMPLATE
desired
PHOP IP address of I/F that NHOP IP address of I/F originating
transmitted Path Msg. the Resv msg.
Flow Descriptor
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Fast Re-Route (FRR) using Critical Systems Thinking

RSVP-TE
Rerouting is done when
A better path is available Originates LSPs
with IDs 1 and 2
Upon failure along LSP Src

Here they are treated as different


LSPs within the same Session
Use SESSION Obj. & SE style Rcvr
Tunnel ID in
LSP ID = L1 Session Obj
Tunnel uniquely identified by
Destination IP address
Tunnel ID
Ingress IP address

Tunnel ingress made to appear LSP ID = L2 On these links the


as 2 different senders to the LSPs share resources
RSVP session (via LSP ID) LSPs 1 and 2 have a common SESSION Obj, but
a new LSP ID in the SENDER_TEMPLATE and a
different ERO (with possibly common hops)
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TE with Constraint-based Routing Critical Systems Thinking

in a Nutshell
Operator Input Route Computation Resource Enhanced IGP
(Flow or LSP Process TED Attributes Process
Attributes) (on-line (CSPF) or offline) (OSPF-TE)

Network
Output Topology + State

Routing Table
Computed
(RIB)
Demand or Traffic driven feasible path
(ERO) Control driven route computation
LSP path selection
and LSP path selection

Link State
Signaling Process Database Standard IGP
(RSVP-TE) (LSDB) Process (OSPF)

CONTROL PLANE

DATA PLANE
LSP
Establishment Link Attribute
Modification
MPLS LSPs
(Label Info. Base) Forwarding
Info. Base (FIB)
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Critical Systems Thinking

How it All Fits Together


Last-mile Ethernet
PBB clouds
CE3

LSP Tunnels
CE1

PE1 PE3 CE4


Pseudo-wires

PE2

IP/MPLS Core

CE2
Attachment circuits
-- Physical (PDH/SDN)
-- Logical (FR, ATM, VLANs, tunnels)
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Critical Systems Thinking

OAM: The Traditional Achilles Heel of


Ethernet

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Critical Systems Thinking

Why Ethernet OAM?


Current management protocols lack per-customer
granularity to handle Ethernet services

Most management protocols operate are point-to-point


Ethernet OAM can exploit multipoint capability

Link management required for last-mile connection


Similar to link mgt. in FR and ATM

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Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet OAM Types


Service OAM
e2e connectivity and fault mgt. per service instance
Part of IEEE 802.1ag, CFM project

Link OAM
Monitoring & fault mgt of individual Ethernet link (physical/emulated)
Part of IEEE 802.3, Clause 57 (formerly 802.3ah (not to be confused
with 802.1ah))

Ethernet Local Mgt. Interface (E-LMI)


Configuration & operational provisioning of customer edge device
Part of MEF Standard MEF-16

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Critical Systems Thinking

Service OAM
Works on per-EVC basis
Independent of underlying transport technology

CFM messages
Continuity Check Message
Detects loss of service connectivity

Link Trace Message


Traces the path hop-by-hop (like IP traceroute)

Loopback Message
Detects whether target point is reachable (like ICMP Ping)

AIS (Alarm Indication Signal) Message


Asynchronous notification to indicate fault

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Critical Systems Thinking

Link OAM
Discovery
Identifies devices at both ends of the link

Link Monitoring
Detects link faults
Statistics of packet errors

Remote Failure Indication


Conveys loss-of-signal indication to peers, due to poor SNR, power
failure, or other critical events

Remote Loopback
Determines quality of link during installation and troubleshooting

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Critical Systems Thinking

E-LMI
Provides local configuration & operational parameters to
customer edge
VLAN-EVC mapping
QoS profiles of EVC

Reduces configuration errors, improves performance


Dynamic EVC management

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Critical Systems Thinking

Quality-of-Service: Ah! that elusive QoS

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MPLS and Quality-of-Service for Critical Systems Thinking

Ethernet Services
MPLS supports (not extends) a packet-based QoS model

MPLS does not run in hosts (only in metro/core routers)


QoS, however, is an end-to-end mechanism

MPLS helps carriers offer QoS-enabled services efficiently


Can support MEF QoS model via DiffServ QoS framework

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Critical Systems Thinking

Differentiated Services Framework


Traffic flows aggregated into small # of classes

Drop Precedence Class Priority DSCP


EF 101110
Per-flow state is not required
AF1x 001xx0
AF2x 01xx10
AF3x 11xx10
More scalable than IntServ
AF4x 1xxx10
3 2 1
BE
Class encoded in IP header via
Best Effort (BE)
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)
Expedited Forwarding (EF)
Minimal delay & loss
Edge router
Assured Forwarding (AF)
Classifies packets to DifServ classes
4 classes
3 drop precedences each

DSCP identifies Per Hop Behavior (PHB) 12 possibilities total


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Critical Systems Thinking

Differentiated Services Architecture


Diffserv Domain

Core Functions
Edge Functions
EF
Traffic Conditioning
Colored packet Strict
Meter (marked DSCP) Priority
Aggregate
AF PHBs

Classifier Marker Shaper Scheduling


BE
WFQ

Queueing
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MPLS Support of DiffServ: Critical Systems Thinking

Mapping DSCPs to LSPs (or labels)


Map DSCP EXP bits in MPLS shim header
6 DS bits (64 PHBs) and only 3 EXP bits (8 classes)!
Complete mapping is infeasible
For many practical cases, 8 PHBs may suffice

IP Header MPLS shim header


6 bits

DSCP
DSCP Label EXP S TTL

DS byte 3 bits

Results in an LSP called an E-LSP

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MPLS Support of DiffServ: Critical Systems Thinking

Mapping DSCPs to LSPs (or labels)


Map {PHB, FEC} MPLS Label
That is, provide the info. in the label itself!
Requires enhancing the label distribution protocols
Use EXP bits for drop precedence
That is to determine different PHBs of a PHB scheduling class

DS class drop
precedence
6 bits DS class: EF, AFx

DSCP
DSCP Label EXP S TTL

DS byte 3 bits

IP Header MPLS shim header

Results in an LSP called an L-LSP

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Critical Systems Thinking

Conclusions and Discussion


Metanoia, Inc.
Critical Systems Thinking

Conclusions
Ethernet poised to be dominant choice in metro networks
Reduces capex and opex for providers
Enables new revenue generating services

802.1ad provider bridge with OAM of 802.1ag


a choice at the edge

Two architectures emerging for Ethernet in the metro core


Provider Backbone Transport (PBT)
IP/MPLS-based L2 VPNs

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Critical Systems Thinking

Thank You!
Questions?
Metanoia, Inc.
Critical Systems Thinking

Glossary
AC Attachment Circuit DS DiffServ

ACL Access Control List DSCP DiffServ Code Point

AF Assured Forwarding EF Expedited Forwarding

API Application Programming Interface E-LMI Ethernet-Local Management Interface

AS Autonomous System E-LSP EXP mapped LSP

ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode EPL Ethernet Private Line

BA Behavior Aggregate ERO Explicit Route Object

B-DA Backbone Destination Address E-UNI Ethernet UNI

B-DA Backbone Source Address EVC Ethernet Virtual Circuit

BE Best Effort EVPL Ethernet Virtual Private Line

B-FCS Backbone Frame Check Sequence Experimental (EXP bits in MPLS "shim"
EXP header)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
EXP Experimental Bits
CBS Committed Burst Size
FCS Frame Check Sequence
CE Customer Edge (router)
FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class
CES Core Ethernet Switch/Bridge
FIB Forwarding Information Base
CFM
FR Frame Relay
CIR Committed Information Rate
GR Graceful Restart
CO Central Office
H-QoS Hierarchical Quality-of-Service
DA Destination Address
H-VPLS Hierarchical VPLS
DS DiffServ
IPTV IP Television
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Critical Systems Thinking

Glossary
L2 Layer 2 (Data Link Layer; MAC Layer) OSPF Open Shortest Path First
L3 Layer 3 (Network or IP Layer) P Provider (router)
LAN Local Area Network PB Provider Bridging
LDP Label Distribution Protocol PBB Provider Backbone Bridging
LER Label Edge Router PBT Provider Backbone Transport
LIB Label Information Base PDH Pleisosynchronous Digital Hierarchy
L-LSP Label inferred LSP PE Provider Edge (router)
LSP Label Switched Path PHB Per Hop Behavior
LSR Label Switching Router PIR Peak Information Rate
MAC Medium Access Control PSN Packet Switching Network
MBS Maximum Burst Size P-VLAN Provider VLAN
MEF Metro Ethernet Forum PW Pseudo-Wire
MEN Metro Ethernet Architecture QoS Quality-of-Service
MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching RIB Routing Information Base
MSTP Multiple Shortest Path Tree RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
MTU Multi-Tenant Unit Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic
Engineering (RSVP protocol with MPLS
NG Next Generation RSVP-TE traffic engineering extensions)
NGN Next-Generation Network SA Source Address
NNI Network Network Interface SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

OAM Operations, Administration, and Management SONET Synchronous Optical Network

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Critical Systems Thinking

Glossary
SPT Shortest Path Tree VRF Virtual Routing and Forwarding
ST Spanning Tree Protocol VSI Virtual Switching Instance
STP Spanning Tree Protocol WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing
TDM Time-Division Multiplexing
TE Traffic Engineering
TM Traffic Management
TTL Time to Live
UNI User Network Interface
VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier
VFI Virtual Forwarding Instance
VID VLAN Identifier
VLAN Virtual LAN
VLAN Virtual LAN
VOQ Virtual Output Queue
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service
VPN Virtual Private Network
VPWS Virtual Private Wire Service
VR Virtual Router

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Critical Systems Thinking

Readings and References (1)


MEF 4: Metro Ethernet Network Architecture Framework Part 1 Generic
Framework

MEF 6: Metro Ethernet Services Definition Phase 1

MEF 10.1: Metro Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2

MEF 16: Ethernet Local Management Interface

IEEE 802.1d/q WG: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges, IEEE 1998

IEEE 802.1s, Multiple Spanning Tree, IEEE 2002

IEEE 802.1ah, Provider Backbone Bridges, Work in Progress

Documents on the MEF and IEEE 802.1 and 802.3 WG web sites
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Critical Systems Thinking

Readings and References (2)


L. Andersson and E. Rosen, Framework for Layer 2 Virtual Private
Networks (L2VPNs), RFC 4664, September 2006

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, Eds., Virtual Private LAN Service: Using BGP
for Autodiscovery and Signaling, RFC 4761, January 2007

V. Kompella and M. Lasserre, Eds., Virtual Private LAN Service: Using


Label Distribution Protocol for Signaling, RFC 4762, January 2007

S. Bryant and P. Pate, Eds. Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3)


Architecture, RFC 3985, March 2005

L. Martini et al, Eds., Pseudowire Setup and Maintenance Using the Label
Distribution Protocol (LDP), RFC 4447, April 2006

Documents on the L2 VPN, PWE3, MPLS, and CCAMP WGs of the IETF
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Critical Systems Thinking

Additional Slides
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Label Assignment and Distribution Critical Systems Thinking

(control component)
Data Data

Labels Labels

Direction from which labels flow Downstream Upstream

Ordered Solicited (On Demand) Solicited


Unsolicited Unsolicited
Independent Solicited (On Demand) Solicited
Whether LSR waits to hear from Unsolicited Unsolicited
its upstream/downstream nbrs.
before responding to a request Refers to whether LSR distributes
for label(s) labels on demand or voluntarily

Label Retention: Liberal or Conservative

Whether LSR keeps labels from a neighbor


who is not currently the next hop for a FEC

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Critical Systems Thinking

A Word on Reservation Styles


S1
Always chosen by the receiver Unique label/sender
Distinct reservation
Two styles apply with RSVP-TE per sender

Fixed Filter (FF) S2

Distinct reservation for traffic


Link (i,j)
from each sender
Needs unique label per sender
S3
S1
Common reservation
Shared Explicit (SE)
shared by all senders
Common resvn. for traffic from
the senders specified by rcvr.
S2
May assign unique label/sender
Useful for p2p or mp2p LSPs
Link (i,j)
Different senders may
have different labels
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Critical Systems Thinking

LDP versus BGP Signaling


PE PE PE PE
Targeted
LDP
i-BGP

PE PE PE RR PE

PE PE

Targeted LDP BGP-based Signaling

LDP session full mesh b/ween PEs RRs reduce full mesh to 2 sessions/PE
PEs exchange labels directly Cannot direct label mapping to a
New PE reconfig. mesh at all PEs specific peer need label ranges

FIB per VPLS per PE New PE peering session only w/ RRs

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Critical Systems Thinking

L2 VPNS with BGP


Autodiscovery + signaling, together via BGP with RTs (per slide 74)
PE configured with its VPLS ID (if VPLS)
Transmits VPLD ID or identity of attached CEs to peer PEs
Includes demux value for each BGP NLRI (as a label range)
Selection algorithm allows each remote PE to pick correct label for
sending traffic to advertising PE

BGP NLRI for VPLS BGP NLRI for L2 VPN


Length (2 octets) Length (2 octets)

RD (8 octets) RD (8 octets)

VE ID (2 octets) CE ID (2 octets)

VE Block Offset (2 octets) Label blk offset (2 octets)

VE Block size (2 octets) Label Base (3 octets)

Label Base (3 octets) Circuit Status Vector

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Critical Systems Thinking

BGP-based L2 VPN (VPWS)

DLCI=[11,12,, 30]
Label block offset=0
DLCI=[101, 102, , 120] CE3 Label base = 3000
Label range = 20
11
103 12
CE1
1003 CE4
Label block offset=0
Label base = 1000 PE1 3001
PE3
Label range = 20
2003
3002
PE2 IP/MPLS
Core

Label block offset=0


403
Label base = 2000 CE2
Label range = 20
DLCI=[401, 402, , 420]

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Critical Systems Thinking

BGP-based L2 VPN (VPLS)

Label block offset=0


CE3
Label block size = 10
Label base = 3000

CE1
CE4
3001

PE1 PE3
VE ID = 3
3002

PE2 IP/MPLS
Core

CE2

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