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1 Law of reflection
1. The angle of light incidence always equal to
the angle of reflection
2. The incidence, reflection and normal line,
all lie on a same plane
1.2 Mirrors


Concave Convex
1.2.1 Plane Mirror
Image Object Image

Incident light
1. Same size
2. Opposite Direction
3. Virtual

Reflected light
1.2.2 Spherical Mirror

C = Centre of Mirror
R = Radius
F = Focal length position
f = focal length
A = Vertex
1.2.2(a) Concave Mirror
Incident ray travel parallel with axis 2 Will reflect back and
1 pass through focal

R=2f f

2 Will reflect back and Image

1 Incident ray travel pass through parallel characteristics
through focal point
with axis depends on object
1.2.2(b) Convex Mirror
2 Will reflect back and
its extension pass
1 through focal point
Incident ray travel parallel with axis
3 Extension

A convex mirror
curves away from the
R=2f f f viewer; its center of
curvature is behind
2 the mirror
1 Will reflect and
Incident ray travel such that travel parallel with
its extension pass through axis
focal point 1. Located behind mirror
2. Virtual Image
3. Upright image
4. Smaller than object
Formula for Spherical Mirrors
1 2 1 1
Image Distance
f R do d i

Focal length Radius of curvature Object Distance


2f f

Image height

hi di
ho do Example

Object height
Parameter sign 1. Virtual
2. Upright
f = -ve
hi = +ve
x 2f f
di = -ve

C f = +ve
di = +ve
2f f 1. Real
v hi = -ve 2. Invert
Quantity Symbol + -
Focal length f Concave Convex

Image di Real Virtual

Image height hi Upright Inverted

Magnification M Upright Inverted

Virtual Real
Test yourself

A 4.0-cm tall light bulb is placed a

distance of 8.3 cm from a concave
mirror having a focal length of 15.2
cm. Determine the image distance
and the image size.
(Answer :di = -18.3cm , hi = +8.8
cm )
Question 2
A 4cm tall light bulb is placed a distance of
35.5 cm from a convex mirror having a focal
length of 12.2 cm. Determine the image
distance and the image size.
Question 3
Where should an object be placed, with
reference to a concave spherical mirror of
radius 180 cm, to form a real image having
half its linear dimension?
(Answer : 2.7 m from mirror )
1.3 Refraction
Bending of the path of light when pass across
boundary of two diff media
Light wave bend because it speeds change
1.3.1 Index of Refraction , n
The higher value of n, the slower the light
travel in material
We can calculate n of material by using:
Velocity of light in

c vacuum (3 x 108

ms-1 n value can be
calculate using the
ratio of velocity of
light in vacuum and
Index of
v Velocity of
light in
in medium
Example of n for several materials

Water n = 1.51
n = 1.333

n = 2.417
1.4 Snell`s law
~It describe the relationship between the
angle of incident/refraction and the refractive
index of medium

ni sin i nr sin r

i angle of incidence
r angle of refraction
1.5 Critical Angle,r
The incidence angle that cause angle of
refraction of 90o

Critical angle=50o
What happen if we increase the
incidence angle larger than critical
~ Total Internal Reflection Occur
Exercise time
Level 1 Question
Level 2 question
A monochromatic light source is put on the bottom of a
beaker filled with an unknown liquid. Two ray of light
from the source are travel to the liquid layer as shown in
Figure 1.14. Find the refractive index for the liquid and
the angle of .
(Answer : 1.41 , 45.10 )
23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing

Thin lenses are those

whose thickness is
small compared to their
radius of curvature.
They may be either
converging (a) or
diverging (b).
23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing

Parallel rays are

brought to a focus by
a converging lens
(one that is thicker in
the center than it is at
the edge).
23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
A diverging lens (thicker at the edge than in
the center) make parallel light diverge; the
focal point is that point where the diverging
rays would converge if projected back.
23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing

The power of a lens is the inverse of its focal


Lens power is measured in diopters, D.

1 D = 1 m-1

P = +ve (converging P = -ve (diverging lens)

lens)Convex Concave
23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
For a diverging lens, we can use the same
three rays; the image is upright and virtual.
23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification

The thin lens equation is the same as the

mirror equation:

23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification

The magnification formula is also the same

as that for a mirror:


The power of a lens is positive if it is

converging and negative if it is diverging.
do +ve: real object di +ve: real image

do -ve: virtual object di -ve: virtual object

Both f and R are +ve : convex lens ( concave mirror )


Both f and R are -ve : concave lens ( convex mirror )

M is +ve: image is upright and on the same side as object

M is -ve: image is inverted and on the side of the lens

opposite to the object

Quantity Positive When Negative When
Object location (do) Object is in front of Object is in back of
the lens the lens
Image location (di) Image is in back of Image is in front of
the lens ( real image ) the lens ( virtual
image )
Image height (hi) Image is upright and Image is inverted and
on the same side as opposite the object

R1 and R2 Center of curvature is Center of curvature is

in back of the lens in front of the lens
Focal length (f) Converging lens Diverging lens

Example: 5

An object , O, 4.0 cm high is 20 cm in front of a thin

convex lens of focal length +12 cm . Determine the
position and height of its image
a) By construction
b) By computation

Answer: di=+30 cm, hi=6.0 cm

Example: 6

An object , 9.0 cm high is 27 cm in front of a concave lens of

focal length -18 cm . Determine the position and height of
its image by the construction and computation.

Answer: di= - 10.8 cm, hi= 3.6 cm

Example: 7

A converging lens ( f=20 cm ) is placed 37 cm in front of a

screen. Where should the object be placed if its image is to
appear on the screen?

Answer: 43.5 cm from the lens.

Example: 8

Compute the position and focal length of the converging lens

which will project the image of a lamp, magnified 4 times,
upon a screen 10.0 cm from the lamp.

Answer: do= 2cm, di=8cm f = +1.6cm


1. separation of a white light into components

of different wavelengths (different colors)
2. Shorter wavelengths are refracted more
than longer wavelengths.
The ability of waves to bend around obstacles
in their path.
When TWO or more COHERENT wave
coincide/interfere with each other
1. Monochromatic wave
2. Coherence
- Similar wavelength,

Double trough Constructive

Double crest Interference
Young Double Slit Experiment
d = distance between two slits
D= distance between slits and screen
Ym = distance from center to the fringe
mD destuctive (m )D
(Bright fringe)
ym Interference
ym 2
d (dark fringe) d
Incident P
r1 r1 Central or
bright fringe
y S1
S1 r2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

S2 d
Path difference,
S2 = r2-r1 = dsin

(a) (b) (c)

Path difference

Bright fringe Dark fringe

d sin = m d sin =( m+ )
Question 1
Coherent light from a sodium-vapor lamp is
passed through a filter that blocks
everything except for light of a single
wavelength. It then falls on two slits
separated by 0.46 mm. In the resulting
interference pattern on a screen 2.20 m
away, adjacent bright fringes are separated
by 2.82 mm. What is the wavelength?
The Young's double slit experiment is carried
out using a light source with a wavelength of
546.0 nm. The distance between the slits is
0.12 mm and the screen is 55.0 cm from the
double slits. Find the angle where
(a) the first dark fringes occurs
(b) the tenth bright fringes occurs
(Answer : 0.13o, 2.3o )
Diffraction Grating

Almost similar to Young Double

Slit, but number of slit >> 2
At the above beach , plane water waves pass through two openings in a
breakwall. Notice the diffraction effectthe waves exit the openings with
circular wave fronts. Notice also how the beach has been shaped by the
circular wave fronts.
Youngs double-slit experiment demonstrated interference
In the double-slit experiment, constructive interference
occurs when

and destructive interference when

Two sources of light are coherent if they have the same

frequency and maintain the same phase relationship