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Smita Pandey
There are many theories and researches about
stress in past hundred years.

Some of these theories have been accepted others

are still being researched.
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of
stress research viewed in 1956 that:

"stress is not necessarily something bad it all

depends on how you take it. The stress of
exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial,
while that of failure, humiliation or infection is
Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress
would be experienced irrespective of whether the
situation was positive or negative.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress
(mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that
stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a
person perceives that "demands exceed the
personal and social resources of the individual

In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost

control of events.
Individual stress is the stress experienced by an
individual alone.

Group Stress: refers to the stress as experienced by

a group of people e.g. a team of people, people in
minorities, a team by another team due to
competition between them
Making your heartbeat
and breath faster

Making you sweat more

Leaving you with cold

hands, feet, or skin

Making you feel sick to

your stomach or giving

you 'butterflies'
Tightening your muscles
or making you feel tense

Leaving your mouth dry

Making you have to go to

the toilet frequently

Increasing muscle ,
spasms, headaches, ,
fatigue, and shortness of
Interfering with your judgment and causing you to
make bad decisions

Making you see difficult situations as threatening

Reducing your enjoyment and making you feel bad

Making it difficult for you to concentrate or to deal
with distraction

Leaving you anxious, frustrated or mad

Making you feel rejected, unable to laugh, afraid of

free time, unable to work, and not willing to
discuss your problems with others
Burnout is a psychological term for the
experience of long-term exhaustion and
diminished interest.
Research indicates general practitioners have
the highest proportion of burnout cases;
according to a recent Dutch study in
Psychological Reports, no less than 40% of
these experienced high levels of burnout.
Maslach and her colleague Jackson first
identified the construct "burnout" in the
1970s, and developed a measure that weighs
the effects of emotional exhaustion and
reduced sense of personal accomplishment.
The Maslach Burnout Inventory uses a three
dimensional description of exhaustion,
cynicism (or pessimism), and inefficacy.
Tracy's study of workers aboard cruise ships
describes burnout as "a general wearing out
or alienation from the pressures of work"
(Tracy, 2000)
Understanding burnout to be personal and
private is problematic when it functions to
disregard the ways burnout is largely an
organizational issue caused by long hours,
little down time, and continual peer,
customer, and superior surveillance
Psychologists Herbert Freudenberger and Gail North have
theorized that the burnout process can be divided into 12

The Compulsion to Prove Oneself

Working Harder

Neglecting Their Needs

Displacement of Conflicts

Revision of Values
Denial of Emerging Problems
Obvious Behavioral Changes
Inner Emptiness
Burnout Syndrome
Problem based coping- focusing on the
burnout issues and the stress-
neurofeedback training
Appraisal based coping- focusing on the
individual appraisal or interpretation of what
is stress inducing activity and what is not.
Social Support- increasing ones social
support by the organization would be helpful,
where social and friendly environment is
There are very many proven skills that we can use
to manage stress.

These help us to remain calm and effective in high

pressure situations, and help us avoid the
problems of long term stress.
Understand Stress : Understanding what stress is
necessary to pin-point stress

Pin-Point the Sources of Stress in Your Life and

finding the sources of stress in your life.

Cope with Work Overload : Successful coping with

work overload is necessary as that would make
your life happier.
Survive Problem Jobs : Helping yourself survive
problem jobs.

Work Successfully With Powerful People: Learn

skills to work successfully with powerful people
Reduce Co-Worker and Team Stress : Where you
work if the co-workers and team is full of stress,
you would rarely be able to enjoy.

Manage Performance Stress : It is important to

manage performance stress.

Reduce Stress With Rational Thinking : Be rational

in thinking
Build Defenses Against Stress: Use constructive
defenses against stress

Avoid or Recover From Burnout : Avoid the too

much stress or burnout. If you are already a victim
of burnout, help yourself recover from it.
Autogenic training
Social activity
Cognitive therapy
Conflict resolution
Getting a hobby
Mindfulness (psychology)
Deep breathing
Yoga Nidra
Reading novels
Relaxation techniques
Artistic Expression
Progressive relaxation
Spending time in nature
Time management
Planning and decision making
Listening to certain types of relaxing music
Vitamin B and Omega 3 fatty acids and
Vitamin D