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Qualitative and group theory of inorganic chemistry By Nadir Hussain 47 Sumeer Shafiq 97 Hafiz Waqas

Qualitative and group theory of inorganic chemistry

By Nadir Hussain


Sumeer Shafiq


Hafiz Waqas


Ahsan Aziz


Zayam Mehmood


M.Sajjad Haider


Qualitative Analysis

  • It is the identification of the constituents for example elements or functional groups, present in a substance.

  • Unlike a Quantitative Analysis we are not concerned with the amount of substance present in sample but only with its identification.

  • Classical Qualitative Analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which solves to find element composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution


  • It involves chemical test s such as kastle-Mayer test for blood or iodine test for starch.

  • Another common qualitative test in inorganic chemistry is flame test

  • For Example ,

One can use the qualitative analysis to find the solution contained Cu +2 and Cl - ions.

Group Theory History

  • Group Theory is purely a mathematician concept.

  • Most of the fundamental of group theory were develop by the French mathematician Evariste Galois (1811- 1832) In the early 19 th century.

  • The principle of group theory are used by chemists and physicist for the analysis of symmetry properties, structure, bonding and molecular spectra of compounds.


“The symmetry relationship in the molecular structure

provide the basis for mathematical theory, called group


Mathematics of group theory is predominately algebra.

Since all molecules are certain geometrical entities, group theory dealing with such molecules is also called the algebra of geometry.

Symmetry Elements:

“A point of Reference about which symmetry operation can take place”

Symmetry Operation:

“A molecule is said to be possess a symmetry element if the

molecule is unchanged in appearance after applying the

symmetry operations corresponding to the symmetry



“It is the movement such as an inversion about point, a

rotation about a line or reflection about a plane in order to

get an equivalent orientation”


  • An internal reflection through a plane of symmetry within an object.

  • A horizontal mirror plane (h ) is perpendicular to the principal axis.

  • Vertical (v ) and dihedral (d ) mirror planes are parallel to the principal axis.


  • A counter clockwise rotation of 2/n (360 0 /n) about an axis.

  • Denoted by C n

  • The rotation axis with the largest n is called the “principal” axis or “Highest Order”.

Improper Rotation:

  • An improper rotation is performed by rotating the molecule 360°/n followed by reflection through the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. If the resulting configuration is indistinguishable from the original, we say there exists an n-fold improper rotation axis (or S n axis) in the molecule.

  • Each of the following molecules contains one or more improper axes:

  • Staggered ethane contains an S 6 axis

  • Methane contains three S 4 axes


Each point is moved along a straight line through the

center of the object (the inversion center) to a point an

equal distance from the centre.

a b c f d e
d e f c a b

The Identity Operation (E)

  • The function whose output is identical to its input.

  • A symmetry operation is a permutation of atoms such that the molecule or crystal is transformed into a state indistinguishable from the starting state. Two basic facts follow from this definition, which emphasize its usefulness.

  • The identity operation is the simplest of all -- do nothing! It may seem pointless to have a symmetry operation that consists of doing nothing, but it is very important. All objects (and therefore all molecules) at the very least have the identity element.



Thank you