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PROBLEM 1

DETERMINATION
OF DEW POINT
AND
BUBBLE POINT

Problem 1 - Page 1
Dew Point & Bubble Point Calculation
You are working with a group on the design of a catalytic cracking unit and its light
ends facilities. Your assignment is to design the tower that will depentanise a C3-
221C fraction.

The pentylenes in the overhead will be separated out in another tower and sent to
the Alkylation Plant, so it is important to maximise recovery of the C5 fraction in the
feed. However, material heavier than C5 in the overhead will increase acid
consumption in the Alkylation Plant; therefore, efforts should be made to keep this
material out of the overhead.

Based on these requirements, you have estimated the composition of the


overhead and bottoms and have concluded that a total condenser operating at
420 kPa is feasible for this tower.

Estimate the tower overhead temperature and the condenser distillate drum
temperature. For purposes of this exercise, assume:

There is no subcooling in the overhead condenser.

The operating pressures of the distillate drum and of the tower top are
equal.

Problem 1 - Page 2
Dew Point & Bubble Point Calculation

Component Liquid Volume Percent @ 15C

C3 6.88
nC4 34.38 (Includes all C4Components)
nC5 55.68 (Includes All C5Components)
55.0D0.708 3.06

Part A:

Assuming ideal k values (based on vapour pressure), calculate the tower


overhead temperature and the distillate drum temperature the old-fashioned way
(by hand).

Part B:

Calculate the temperatures in Part B by rigorous flash calculations. Use


PROVISION - build a simple flash and run the case. Having run the case export
the case to create a keyword file. Review the keyword file to understand the file
structure.

Problem 1 - Page 3
Dew Point & Bubble Point Calculation
Hints

The tower overhead temperature can be estimated by determining the dew point
of the overhead vapour. The bubble point of the same material gives the maximum
possible operating temperature of the distillate drum.

These two calculations are described in the slide material just reviewed.

To make either calculation, it is first necessary to convert the volume composition


to a molar composition. For pure components, calculation of moles is
straightforward; for the pseudocomponent, the molecular weight is related to
boiling point and gravity.

To continue with the calculations, we need to determine the ideal equilibrium for
each component, using vapour pressures.

For the pure components, this is straightforward. For example:

KC3 = Vapour Pressure of Propane @ T


System Pressure

You may wish to write an EXCEL spreadsheet to perform the calculations.

Problem 1 - Page 4
Dew Point & Bubble Point Calculation

The following data has been extracted from the ExxonMobil Blue Books:

Component kg/m3 Mol Wt. B.P.


@ 420kPA (C)
C3 507.7 44.1 -
n C4 584.4 58.12 43
n C5 631.0 72.15 85
55.0 D 0.708 702.2 78.00 -

Vapour Pressure (kPa)


25C 50C 75C 100
C3 970 1750 2900 4600
nC4 240 500 930 1550
nC5 68 160 330 600
55. D .708 40 95 210 400

Problem 1 - Page 5
PROBLEM 1 - SOLUTION

Problem 1 - Page 6
PROBLEM 1A - SOLUTION - HAND CALCULATION

First, convert the volume % into mol. fraction:

Component Vol% Kg/m3


(m3/100m3) (1000 x g/m3) MWt Kg mol/100 m3 Mol Frac.
C3 6.88 507.7 44.10 79.21 0.0843
nC4 34.38 584.4 58.12 345.69 0.3680
nC5 55.68 631.0 72.15 486.96 0.5784
55.0D0.708 3.06 702.2 78.00 27.55 0.0293
Total 100.00 - - 939.43 1.0000

Basic data is all taken from the Blue Book

Problem 1 - Page 7
PROBLEM 1A - SOLUTION - HAND CALCULATION

Basic data is all taken from the Blue Book

Make a first guess at the Bubble Point and Dew Point temperatures:

+ Note that the bulk of the mixture is nC4 and nC5. Hence the average "Boiling
Point" of the mixture @ 420kPa must lie between the boiling point of pure nC4
and pure nC5.

+ From the vapour pressure charts (pages 4-24 and 4-25 in the Blue Book):

Boiling Point of nC4 @ 420 kPa 43C


Boiling Point of nC5 @ 420 kPa 85C
Average boiling point @ 420 kPa 64C

+ We can expect to find the bubble point and dew point of the mixture around this
range of temperatures. Furthermore the Dew Point will be above 64C and the
Bubble Point below 64C.

Problem 1 - Page 8
PROBLEM 1A - SOLUTION - HAND CALCULATION
Calculate ideal K values and estimate the dew point. Use the procedure on slide
1.24. Vapour pressure of pseudo component from chart 53-12.

System pressure = 420 kPa =

Vapour Pressure = Pi Ki = Pi /
25C 50C 75C 100C 25 50C 75C 100C
C3 970 1750 2900 4600 2.31 4.17 6.90 10.95
nC4 740 500 930 1550 0.57 1.19 2.21 3.69
nC5 68 160 330 600 0.16 0.38 0.79 1.43
55.0D0.702 40 95 210 400 0.10 0.23 0.50 0.95

Xi = yi / Ki
yi 25 50C 75C 100C
C3 0.0843 0.0365 0.0202 0.0122 0.0077
nC4 0.3680 0.6440 0.3091 0.1662 0.0997
nC5 0.5184 3.2017 1.3607 0.6597 0.3629
55.0D0.702 0.0293 0.3079 0.1296 0.0586 0.0308
1.0000 4.1901 1.8197 0.8968 0.5011
Problem 1 - Page 9
PROBLEM 1A - SOLUTION - HAND CALCULATION

For xi = 1 Tdew = 50 ~ 75C

By interpolation 1.8197 - 1.0000 * 25 = 22.2 C


1.8197 - 0.8968

Therefore Dew Point 50 + 22.2 = 72.2 C

In Part B, you will perform this same calculation rigorously with PROVISION and
the DCUBEOS thermodynamic method. By this method the calculated dew point
will be 70.9C.

Problem 1 - Page 10
PROBLEM 1A - SOLUTION - HAND CALCULATION
yi = xi / Ki
xi 25 50C 75C 100C
C3 0.0843 0.1947 0.3513 0.5822 0.9234
nC4 0.3680 0.2103 0.4381 0.8148 1.3581
nC5 0.5184 0.0839 0.1975 0.4073 0.7405
55.0D0.702 0.0293 0.0026 0.0066 0.0147 0.0279
1.0000 0.4917 0.9935 1.8190 3.0500

For yi = 1 Tbub = 50 ~ 75C

By interpolation 1.0000 - 0.9935 * 25 = 0.2 C


1.8197 - 0.9935

Therefore Dew Point 50 + 0.2 = 50.2 C

In part B, you should calculate a bubble point of 52.5C with PROII

Problem 1 - Page 11
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION

USING PROVISION

Problem 1 - Page 12
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Start Provision 5.55 and select Exxon Methods


Click on the second button to show the PFD
palette.
The palette permits selection of all available
process units

Problem 1 - Page 13
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Work along the top row completing the


required input - Description, Units,
Components, Thermodynamics
Use the units button to tailor your
model to your refineries standard
units.

Problem 1 - Page 14
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Default units are US - select the metric


set and modify. For our problem we
need metric units. Modify temperature to
centigrade.
Standard set of units for your refinery can
be saved for future use in other models.

Problem 1 - Page 15
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Named components are selected from


built in lists. Select Propane, Butane and
Pentane.
Pseudo components inputted via
Petroleum button.

Problem 1 - Page 16
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Select Propane, Butane and Pentane.


Our pseudo is defined by density and
molecular weight
Problem 1 - Page 17
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Select DCUBEOS as the thermodynamic


method.
DCUBEOS is applicable for most
applications except for primary fractionators
and non hydrocarbon systems
Problem 1 - Page 18
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Draw the system - add a flash unit from the PFD


palette and add input and output streams from the
unit.
Note the red boxes on the input stream and the
flash - these mean more information is required.
Problem 1 - Page 19
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Double click on stream to input flow and


compositional data.
Units of measurement can be changed to
liquid volume.
Tick the Normalize box if components do
not add up to 100%.
Problem 1 - Page 20
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Double click on drum to input the flash


conditions.
Input operating pressure (420 kPa).
Under Unit Specification select either Dew
Point or Bubble Point Flash.
Press OK.
Problem 1 - Page 21
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROVISION

Input is now complete and Run button can


be clicked.
Flash Drum turns blue to indicate
completion of the run.
Click on Output to generate program report.

Problem 1 - Page 22
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
XXXXX
DIMENSION XX, TEMP=C, VISCOSITY=CP, STDTEMP=15.55
SEQUENCE SIMSCI
CALCULATION RVPBASIS=IDL, TVP=37.778
XXXXXXXXX DATA
LIBID 1,XXXXXXX/2,XXXXXX/3,XXXXXXX
PETRO 4,PF1-52,,XXX.X,52.78
XXXXXXXXXXXXX DATA
METHOD SYSTEM=DCUBE, TRANSPORT=EDL, SET=DCUB01, DEFAULT
XXXXXX DATA
PROPERTY STREAM=S1, PRESSURE=XXX, PHASE=V, RATE(LV)=100, &
COMPOSITION(LV)=1,X.XX/2,XX.XX/3,XX.XX/4,X.XX
XXXX OPERATIONS
FLASH UID=F1
FEED XX
PRODUCT L=S3, V=S2
XXXXXX
END

Problem 1 - Page 23
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
TITLE
DIMENSION SI, TEMP=C, STDTEMP=15.55
SEQUENCE SIMSCI
CALCULATION RVPBASIS=IDL, TVP=37.778
COMPONENT DATA
LIBID 1,PROPANE/2,BUTANE/3,PENTANE
PETRO 4,,,702.2,52.78
THERMODYNAMIC DATA
METHOD SYSTEM=DCUBE, TRANSPORT=EDL, SET=DCUB01, DEFAULT
STREAM DATA
PROPERTY STREAM=S1, PRESSURE=420, PHASE=V, RATE(LV)=100, &
COMPOSITION(LV)=1,6.88/2,34.38/3,55.68/4,3.06,
NORMALIZE
UNIT OPERATIONS
FLASH UID=F1
FEED S1
PRODUCT L=S3, V=S2
BUBBLE
END

Problem 1 - Page 24
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE H-1
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM CALCULATION
HISTORY 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

*** PROBLEM SOLUTION BEGINS


FEED FLASH COMPLETE
UNIT 1 SOLVED - 'F1 '
*** PROBLEM SOLUTION REACHED

*** THIS RUN USED 3.00 PRO/II SIMULATION UNITS

*** RUN STATISTICS


STARTED 18:22:06 03/11/02 NO ERRORS
FINISHED 18:22:07 03/11/02 NO WARNINGS
RUN TIMES NO MESSAGES
INTERACTIVE 0 MIN, 0.00 SEC
CALCULATIONS 0 MIN, 0.40 SEC
TOTAL 0 MIN, 0.40 SEC

Problem 1 - Page 25
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE I-1
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
INDEX 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

PAGE CONTENTS
------ ----------------------------------------------------------------
1 COMPONENT DATA
2 CALCULATION SEQUENCE AND RECYCLES
3 FLASH DRUM SUMMARY
4 STREAM MOLAR COMPONENT RATES
5 STREAM SUMMARY

Problem 1 - Page 26
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS

SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-1


PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
COMPONENT DATA 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

COMPONENT COMP. TYPE PHASE MOL. WEIGHT DENSITY


KG/M3
--------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 PROPANE LIBRARY VAP/LIQ 44.096 507.199
2 BUTANE LIBRARY VAP/LIQ 58.123 583.824
3 PENTANE LIBRARY VAP/LIQ 72.150 630.378
4 PF1-52 PETRO CUT VAP/LIQ 76.921 702.200

Problem 1 - Page 27
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS

COMPONENT NBP CRIT. TEMP. CRIT. PRES. CRIT. VOLM.


C C KPA M3/KG-MOL
--------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 PROPANE -42.080 96.700 4247.000 0.2000
2 BUTANE -0.510 152.010 3796.000 0.2532
3 PENTANE 36.070 196.540 3365.000 0.3076
4 NBP 52 52.780 227.396 3737.075 0.3021

COMPONENT ACEN. FACT. HEAT FORM. G FORM.


KJ/KG-MOL KJ/KG-MOL
--------------------- ----------- ----------- -----------
1 PROPANE 0.15210 -104700.00 -24307.00
2 BUTANE 0.19950 -125600.00 -16370.00
3 PENTANE 0.25060 -146900.00 -8803.00
4 NBP 52 0.24701 -74176.46 45216.87

Problem 1 - Page 28
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS

SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-2


PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
CALCULATION SEQUENCE AND RECYCLES 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

CALCULATION SEQUENCE

SEQ UNIT ID UNIT TYPE


--- ------------ ----------
1 F1 FLASH

Problem 1 - Page 29
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-3
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
FLASH DRUM SUMMARY 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

FLASH ID F1
NAME

FEEDS S1

PRODUCTS VAPOR S2
LIQUID S3

TEMPERATURE, C 52.471
PRESSURE, KPA 420.000
PRESSURE DROP, KPA 0.000
MOLE FRAC VAPOR 0.00000
MOLE FRAC LIQUID 1.00000
DUTY, M*KJ/HR -22.25160
FLASH TYPE BUBBLE-P

Problem 1 - Page 30
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-4
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM MOLAR COMPONENT RATES 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID S1 S2 S3
NAME
PHASE VAPOR VAPOR LIQUID
(1)
FLUID RATES, KG-MOL/HR
1 PROPANE 79.1345 0.3082 79.1345
2 BUTANE 345.3342 0.4505 345.3342
3 PENTANE 486.4800 0.2329 486.4800
4 PF1-52 27.9342 8.4327E-03 27.9342

TOTAL RATE, KG-MOL/HR 938.8830 0.0000 938.8830

TEMPERATURE, C 70.8728 52.4712 52.4712


PRESSURE, KPA 420.0000 420.0000 420.0000
ENTHALPY, M*KJ/HR -121.1812 0.0000 -143.4328
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 64.7680 57.2257 64.7680
MOLE FRAC VAPOR 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000
MOLE FRAC LIQUID 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000

(1) EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR FROM BUBBLE FLASH - STREAM RATE IS ZERO

Problem 1 - Page 31
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-5
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID S1 S2 S3
NAME
PHASE VAPOR VAPOR LIQUID
(1)
----- TOTAL STREAM -----
RATE, KG-MOL/HR 938.883 0.000 938.883
K*KG/HR 60.810 0.000 60.810
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR 100.000 0.000 100.000
TEMPERATURE, C 70.873 52.471 52.471
PRESSURE, KPA 420.000 420.000 420.000
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 64.768 57.226 64.768
ENTHALPY, M*KJ/HR -121.181 0.000 -143.433
KJ/KG -1992.800 0.000 -2358.723
MOLE FRACTION LIQUID 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000
REDUCED TEMP (KAYS RULE) 0.7717 0.7769 0.7304
PRES (KAYS RULE) 0.1164 0.1095 0.1164
ACENTRIC FACTOR 0.2234 0.1972 0.2234
WATSON K (UOPK) 13.244 13.630 13.244
STD LIQ DENSITY, KG/M3 608.096 576.742 608.096
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.6087 0.5773 0.6087
API GRAVITY 100.964 113.602 100.964

Problem 1 - Page 32
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS

-------- VAPOR ---------


RATE, KG-MOL/HR 938.883 0.000 N/A
K*KG/HR 60.810 0.000 N/A
K*M3/HR 5.703 0.000 N/A
STD VAP RATE(2), K*M3/HR 22.242 0.000 N/A
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (AIR=1.0) 2.236 1.976 N/A
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 64.768 57.226 N/A
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG -1992.800 -2128.018 N/A
CP, KJ/KG-C 2.016 1.954 N/A
DENSITY, KG/K*M3 10662.706 9836.635 N/A
Z (FROM DENSITY) 0.8919 0.9025 N/A
TH COND, W/M-K 0.02140 0.02051 N/A
VISCOSITY, CP 0.00846 0.00835 N/A

(1) EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR FROM BUBBLE FLASH - STREAM RATE IS ZERO


(2) STANDARD VAPOR VOLUME IS 23.69 M3/KG-MOLE (288.7 K AND 1 ATM)

Problem 1 - Page 33
PROBLEM 1B - SOLUTION - USING PROII KEYWORDS
SIMULATION SCIENCES INC. R PAGE P-6
PROJECT PRO/II VERSION 5.55 EXXONMOBIL 386/EM
PROBLEM OUTPUT
STREAM SUMMARY 03/11/02
LICENSED EXCLUSIVELY FOR USE BY: ExxonMobil Corporation
SPECIAL VERSION WITH EDL III
VERSION NUMBER 2.50
==============================================================================

STREAM ID S1 S2 S3
NAME
PHASE VAPOR VAPOR LIQUID

-------- LIQUID --------


RATE, KG-MOL/HR N/A N/A 938.883
K*KG/HR N/A N/A 60.810
M3/HR N/A N/A 106.933
GAL/MIN N/A N/A 470.811
STD LIQ RATE, M3/HR N/A N/A 100.000
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H2O=1.0) N/A N/A 0.6087
MOLECULAR WEIGHT N/A N/A 64.768
ENTHALPY, KJ/KG N/A N/A -2358.723
CP, KJ/KG-C N/A N/A 2.480
DENSITY, KG/M3 N/A N/A 568.670
Z (FROM DENSITY) N/A N/A 0.0177
SURFACE TENSION, N/M N/A N/A 0.0107
THERMAL COND, W/M-K N/A N/A 0.09992
VISCOSITY, CP N/A N/A 0.14837

Problem 1 - Page 34