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Cooperative Learning

Research-Based Strategies for


Increasing Student Achievement
Compiled from:
Classroom Instruction That Works!
By: Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering & Jane E.
Pollock
Classroom Instruction That Works!
Facilitators Manual
By: McREL
Classroom Instruction That Works!
Participants Manual
By: McREL
Outcomes
Students will:

learn the elements of


cooperative learning
Learn what is takes for students
to work successfully in
cooperative groups
Identify ways to implement
Cooperative Learning
strategies into the classroom
Discussion Question
Table Talk Activity:

Think about your own experiences


with cooperative learning as
both a learner and as a
teacher. Discuss with your
table mates the pros and cons
of using this strategy. Record
your responses on chart paper.
Category Ave.
Effect Size
Perce
ntile
No. of
ESs
(ES) Gain
Identifying Similarities and 1.61 45 31
Differences
Summarizing & Note Taking 1.0 34 179

Reinforcing Effort and .80 29 21


Providing Recognition
Homework & Practice .77 28 134

Nonlinguistic representations .75 27 246

Cooperative .73 27 122


Learning
Setting Objectives & .61 23 408
Providing Feedback
Generating & Testing .61 23 63
Hypotheses
Questions, Cues, and .59 22 1,251
Advance Organizers
Four Planning Questions for Instruction
What knowledge Which strategies
will students learn? will provide
evidence that
students have
learned that
knowledge?

Which strategies Which strategies


will help students will help students
practice, review, acquire and
and apply that integrate that
knowledge? knowledge?
Four Planning Questions for Instruction
What knowledge Which strategies
will students learn? will provide
evidence that
students have
learned that
Cooperative knowledge?
Learning

Which strategies Which strategies


will help students will help students
practice, review, acquire and
and apply that integrate that
knowledge? knowledge?
Generalizations from the Research
on Cooperative Learning

1. Organizing groups based


on ability levels should be
done sparingly.
2. Cooperative learning
groups should be rather
small in size.
3. Cooperative learning
should be used
consistently and
systemically, but should
not be overused.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice:
Cooperative Learning

1. Use a variety of criteria to


group students.
2. Use informal, formal and
base groups.
3. Keep the groups to a
manageable size.
4. Combine cooperative
learning with other
classroom structures.
Recommendation # 1

Use a variety of criteria to group students.


Recommendation # 2

Use informal, formal and base groups.


FORMAL GROUPS:
Basic Components of Cooperative Learning
1. Positive Interdependence
Sense of sink or swim together
2. Face-to-Face Promotive interaction
Helping each other learn, applauding
efforts and success
3. Individual and group accountability
Each of us has to contribute to the group
achieving its goal
4. Interpersonal and small group skills
Communication, trust, leadership, decision
making, conflict resolution
5. Group processing
Reflecting on how well the team is
functioning and how to function even
better
Rubric for Effective Interpersonal Skills

4 I actively help the group work together. I join


group activities without being asked. I say
what I think in a way that respects what
others feel and know.

3 I join group activities without being asked. I


say what I think in a way that respects what
others feel and know.

2 I only join group activities when someone


asks. Sometimes I say what I think in a way
that hurts others feelings.

1 I do not join group activities, even when


someone asks me. Or, I say what I think in a
way that hurts others feelings.
Recommendation # 3

Keep the groups to a


manageable size.
Recommendation # 4

Combine cooperative learning with other


classroom structures.
TABLE ACTIVITY
How does the list of pros and
cons about using
cooperative learning that
the group generated at
the beginning reflect the
generalizations from
research and the
recommended classroom
practices?
Key Point # 1

Cooperative Learning is a
flexible and powerful
instructional strategy that
should be used consistently
and systematically, but it
should not be overused.
Key Point # 2
Teachers should ensure that the tasks they
assign to formal cooperative learning
groups address the five components of
cooperative learning:
1. Positive interdependence
2. Face-to-face promotive
interaction
3. Individual and group
accountability
4. Interpersonal and small group skills
5. Group Processing
Key Point # 3
Teachers should use a
variety of criteria for
grouping students and a
variety of grouping
structures (i.e., informal,
formal and base groups).
Key Point # 4
To ensure that cooperative learning is not
misused or overused, teachers should:

provide students with well structured


cooperative tasks
continually monitor how well students are
working in cooperative groups
what effects cooperative learning
activities are having students learning
what feedback needs to be given to help
students throughout the entire process,
especially those who are not working well
in their groups.