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# Derivatives and

Rates of Change
By: Yvonne Truong EDSC 304
Definitions
Tangent Line: a line that intersects a
curve at exactly one point

## Secant Line: a line that intersects a

curve at exactly two points

## See video for more details:

The tangent line to a curve = at the point
(, ) is a line through with slope

()
= lim

Now let =
Solve for
Substitute into first equation

So we have:
+ ()
= lim
0
Example 1:Find the equation of the tangent line to
the curve y = at (1, 1)
+ () 1
= lim 1= 1
0 2
1+1 ( 1++1) 1 1
=lim 1=
0 ( 1++1) 2 2
1+1 1 1
=lim = +
0 ( 1++1) 2 2

=lim
0 ( 1++1)

=lim slope
0 ( 1++1)
1 1 1
=lim = =
0 ( 1++1) 1+1 2
Velocity
The velocity of an object can be
found by using the formula for
the slope of the tangent line

A =

+ ()
=

Example 2: If an arrow is shot upward on the moon with a
velocity of 58 /, its height (in meters) after seconds
is given by = 58 0.83 2

## Find the velocity of the arrow when =

+ ()
() = lim
0
(58 + 0.83 +)2 (580.832 )
=lim
0
58+580.832 1.660.832 58+0.832
=lim
0
581.660.832 ()
=lim
0
(581.660.83)
=lim = 58 1.66 0.83 = 58 1.66
0
Derivative as a Function
Definition:
+ ()
() = lim
0

## Differentiable functions: a function that is differentiable at if ()

exists
The function is not differentiable when:
a) The graph of has a corner or a kink
b) is not continuous at some point
c) The curve has a vertical tangent line
Basic Differentiation Formulas
Power Rule: if is a positive integer, then

= (1)

## Constant Multiple Rule: if is constant and is

a differentiable function, then

() = ()

Examples:
8 20
a) = 8 7 b) = 20 19

c) x = 5 4 d) x = 2
3
4

x = 5( 4 ) 3
x = 2 4
x = 5(4 ) 3
x = 20 3 3 7
x = 2( 4 )
4
3 7
x = 4
2
Application: A particle moves according to a law of motion
= = 3 12 2 + 36, 0, where is measured in
seconds and in feet.

=
= 3 2 24 + 36

## b) What is the velocity after 5 seconds?

= 3 2 24 + 36
5 = 3(5)2 24(5) + 36
= 3 25 24 5 + 36
= 75 120 36
= 9/ (note that () means negative direction)