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The use of computing resources to intimidate,
coerce or harm people, places or systems we
depend upon.
Amalgamation of Cyberspace and Terrorism.
Leveraging of a target's computers and
information technology, particularly via the
Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or
severe disruption with the aim of advancing the
attacker's own political or religious goals.

Why would a terrorist decide to use the
Internet, rather than using the usual methods
of assassination, hostage taking and guerrilla

Chances of capture, injury, or death to a
cyber terrorist are less

Cyber terrorism is difficult to track

Easy to accomplish due to lack of

understanding of security risks

But, in one of its more unusual forms,

cyber-terrorism can be related with
physical, real world terrorism.
Crackers -A cracker is someone who breaks
into someone else's computer system, often on
a network; bypasses passwords or licenses in
computer programs; or in other ways
intentionally breaches computer security.
White Hat Hackers Hackers who break into
computers. They have no right to access but
they often report the security leaks to the
Script bunnies - People who would like to be
hackers but dont have much technical expertise.
They download click-and-point software that
automatically does the hacking for them.
Dependence on Network Infrastructure
and the Internet
Lack of Understanding of Security Risks
Lack of Funding for Adequate Network
Security Tools
Difficulty in tracking the Cyber terrorist

Information Gathering Purposes
National pride
Financial gains

Information theft
Minor attacks come in the form of "data diddling", where
information in the computer is changed. This may involve changing
medical or financial records or stealing of passwords. Hackers may
even prevent users who should have access from gaining access to
the machine.
Ethical issues in this case include things like invasion of privacy and
ownership conflicts.

Credit Card Number Theft

People are using credit cards for more and more of their
purchases as time goes on.. Credit cards are especially easy to use
fraudulently, because they require no extra identification number to
All that a thief needs is pure information-they don't need the card,
but just the number on the card. Recently, with people spending
more on purchases transacted over the internet, credit card fraud is
becoming easier.
More than 40 million credit card numbers belonging to U.S.
consumers were accessed by a computer hacker in the year 2005
according to MasterCard International Inc.
Electronic Cash
We are already well on the way to a cash-free society. People now
use ATM cards, credit cards, and check-cards for a large
percentage of their purchasing. As we move further from a paper-
money society, to a purely electronic economy, new types of crime
will emerge as accessing these is quite easier.
All we can be sure of, is that criminals of tomorrow, like those of last
century and those of today, will keep on innovating.
This is because, as a system advances, so does the criminals.

Hacking is basically knowing programmable systems and how they
How can hacking be helpful ?
Some agencies hire hackers to show them the downfalls in their
security system so they can improve it against hackers that want
information or access into the computer for other reasons.
Hacking is a form of art for some people .
But generally , it is being used adversely.
One of the popular terror act is to threaten a large bank.
In 2001 ,12 billion dollars in losses due to security breaches, virus
attacks and hacked network

The NIMDA virus alone accounted for 2 billion dollars in losses

The Mydoom virus sent 100 million infected e-mails in the first 36
hours, and accounted for roughly a quarter of global e-mail traffic on
Jan. 26, 2004.

The pessimists claim that cyber attacks cost $10-$15 billion per year
and would cost tens of billions more to fix, the optimists claim that all
cyber crime over a five year period cumulatively cost only $1 billion
and fixing the current vulnerabilities would only cost $4-$5 billion

As the Cyberspace continues to expand, and systems

continue to be assigned more responsibility while
becoming more and more complex and interdependent,
sabotage or terrorism via cyberspace may become a
more serious threat.
Cooperate and share intelligence among
all agencies.
The tools of a counter-Cyber Terrorist
team must be real-time and dynamic, as
the weapons will continually change.
Make building, network and desktop
security a priority.
Report instances of cyber crime to local
law enforcement agencies.

Building/Office Security
Use of secure entrances card keys, biometric
entry devices
Personnel should question why non-staff are in
the building
Security personnel
Standard operating procedures in cases of
dismissal or reprimand
Background checks on contracted service
personnel looking for a past history of theft, drug
use or sale, assault, computer crime

Desktop/Laptop Computer
Virus detection software that is regularly updated
Secure physical set-up that is not open to the
public or unmonitored
Passworded screen savers
Require network logins if you are on a network
Standardize the desktop so as to limit what an
end-user can and cannot do

Server Security
The server should be kept in a locked and
restricted area
Administrative passwords and equivalencies
should be given to a minimal number of people
Administrative passwords should be changed
Users should only be given access to file
systems that they will actually need to use
Virus detection software that is regularly updated

Network Security
Require logins and passwords
Users should be required to change passwords
at least every 30 days
The passwords should be easy enough to
remember and difficult enough to guess
Use of Firewalls and Routers
Standard Operating procedures when an
employee leaves, is terminated or is given
formal reprimands

Disable unused accounts
Require users to log-out and login each day
Encrypt all traffic over the LAN

Cyber forensics is a newly emerged and
developing field, which can be described as the
study of digital evidence resulting from an

It involves collection and analysis of digital data

within an investigative process. Cyber forensics
involves the investigation and analysis of a
computer to determine the potential of legal

To prevent cyber stalking avoid disclosing any
information pertaining to oneself. This is as good
as disclosing your identity to strangers in public
Always avoid sending any photograph online
particularly to strangers and chat friends as
there have been incidents of misuse of the
Never send your credit card number to any site
that is not secured, to guard against frauds.
Always keep a watch on the sites that your
children are accessing to prevent any kind of
harassment or depravation in children.
Use of firewalls may be beneficial.
Provide for Contingencies if Critical
Systems and Networks are Unavailable or
Determine alternate ways of processing data
Determine dependencies between systems
and equipment
Determine backup personnel

The plan should be current and known

>Hacking exposed by Stuart McClure
>Unofficial guide to ethical hacking by Ankit Fadia
>Google Hacks by Calishain & Cornets
http://www.cybercrimelaw.org/index.cfm - Cybercrime
http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm#anchor666666 -
Computer Crimes, Ronald B. Standler