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Bridge Structure Types

and
Components
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Types of Bridges
Girders or Beams
Trusses
Flat Slabs
Rigid Frames
Arches
Suspension
Culverts

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 2

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Types of Culverts
Rigid
concrete, timber
Flexible
corrugated steel

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 3

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Girder Bridges

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 4

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Steel I Girder Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 5

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Steel Box Girder Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 6

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Prestressed Concrete Girder


Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 7

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Concrete T Girder Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 8

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Concrete Flat Slab Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 9

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Standard Prestressed
Concrete Girder

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 10

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Standard Precast
Concrete Girder

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 11

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Timber Girder Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 12

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Truss Bridge

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 13

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Pony Truss Section

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 14

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Through Truss Section

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 15

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Deck Truss Elevation

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 16

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Deck Truss Section

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 17

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Rigid Steel Frame Elevation

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 18

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Rigid Frame Section

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 19

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Span Types
Simple span
girder, beam or truss spans from one
support to another
each end has its own bearing
joint over every support

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 20

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Simple Spans
simple span simple span
expansion fixed joint expansion
fixed joint joint joint

fixed bearing expansion bearing

expansion bearings fixed bearings

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 21

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Span Types
Continuous span
the girder, beam or truss is continuous over several
supports
only one bearing on each support
only joints at end of continuous section

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 22

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Continuous Spans
continuous span
expansion
expansion joint
joint

expansion bearing
expansion bearing

expansion bearing fixed bearing

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 23

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Decks
transfer wheel loads to the main load carrying
members
girders, beams, trusses, etc.

Timber Decks Concrete Decks

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 24

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Curbs and Medians


Define travel lanes
Safety

Wheelguards

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 25

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Girder and Stringer Elements


Steel girder bridge section
2 3 1a

(1a) top flange


1b (1b) bottom flange,
4 (2) web,
(3) diaphragm
Prestressed girder bridge section
3 (4) stiffener
2

1b 1a

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 26

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Truss Elements
1 3
4
3
4

(1) top chord (3) batter post


(2) bottom chord (4) verticals and diagonals

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 27

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Through Truss Elements


1 1 top chord
2 bottom chord
3 verticals & diagonals
6
4 4 wind or sway bracing
5 bottom lateral bracing
3 6 top lateral bracing
7 stringers
8 floor beams

7
5
2 8

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 28

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Abutments
Approach slab

Seat Backwall Approach


Wingwalls
Slab
Wingwall
Backwall
Piles Seat

Spill Through Spill Through


Section Plan

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 29

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Abutments

Approach slab

Seat Backwall
Approach
Wingwalls
Wingwall Slab

Footing Seat

Backwall

Retaining Wall Type Retaining Wall Type


Section Plan
TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 30

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Piers

COLUMN TYPE PIER SHAFT TYPE PIER

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 31

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Bearings
Types
fixed
expand
Material
steel
neoprene, Teflon

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 32

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Bearings

NEOPRENE BEARING POT BEARING

ROCKER BEARING ROLLER BEARING

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 33

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Neoprene Bearing
STAINLESS STEEL PLATE
TEFLON

NEOPRENE

STEEL BEDPLATE
GROUT PAD

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 34

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Deck Joints
Types
expansion
fixed
Styles
water tight
open

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 35

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Deck Joints

OPEN JOINT WITH TROUGH

SEALED JOINT
TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 36

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Bridge Railing
Types
flex beam
vertical bar
tube type
barriers
Material
steel (rail and post)
wood (rail and post)
concrete (posts & barriers)

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 37

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Culvert Types
Rigid
Flexible
ABC & CAB

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 38

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Rigid Culvert

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 39

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Flexible Culvert

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 40

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Flexible Culverts CSP & SPCSP

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 41

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Flexible Culvert Components


CULVERT C
L CULVERT
CONCRETE ARCH CROWN OF ROAD STREAMBED (D/S)
(OR HEADWALL) ROADWAY SHOULDER
STREAMBED (U/S)
RIPRAP
INLET OUTLET

FLOW

COLLAR APRON
U/S INVERT BARREL SECTION
D/S INVERT
CONCRETE BEVEL END BEVEL END
CUT-OFF WALL

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 42

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION
BRIDGE STRUCTURE TYPES AND COMPONENTS

Rigid Culvert Components

TECHNICAL STANDARDS BRANCH Slide 43

INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES
TRANSPORTATION