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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CONCEPTS RELATING TO
RESEARCH DESIGN
PRESENTED BY
JASDEEP SINGH BAINS
ROLL NO 19007
RETAIL MANAGEMENT
2 ND SEMESTER
RESEARCH

Research and experimental development


is formal work undertaken systematically to
increase the stock of knowledge, including
knowledge of humanity, culture and society,
and the use of this stock of knowledge to
devise new applications
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

To discover new facts.


To verify and test important facts
To analyze an event or process or phenomenon to
Identify the cause and eect relationship
To develop new scientic tools, concepts and
theories to solve and understand scientic and non-
scientic problems
Contd.

To nd solutions to scientic, non-scientic and


social problems
To overcome or solve the problems occurring in our
every day life.
Importance of Research

Research is important both in scientic and non-


scientic elds. In our life new problems, events,
phenomena and processes occur every day.
Practically implementable solutions and suggestions
are required for tackling new problems that arise.
Scientists have to undertake research on them and
nd their causes, solutions,
explanations and applications. Precisely, research
assists us to understand nature and natural
phenomena.
Some important avenues for research are:
(1) A research problem refers to a diculty which a researcher or
a scientic community or an industry or
a government organization or a society experiences.
It may be a theoretical or a practical situation. It
calls for a thorough understanding and possible solution.
(2) Research on existing theories and concepts help us
identify the range and applications of them.
(3) It is the fountain of knowledge and provide guidelines for
solving problems.
(4) Research provides basis for many government policies. For
example, research on the needs and desires
of the people and on the availability of revenues to
meet the needs helps a government to prepare a
budget.
(5) It is important in industry and business for higher
gain and productivity and to improve the quality of products.
CONCEPTS OF RESEARCH

SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
The process of creating knowledge using empirical
observations and logical analysis according to the
conventions of the scientific community. The
scientific method includes at least 5 stages:
The scientific method includes at least 5 stages:

Observe or have a question about some aspect of the


world.
Propose a tentative statement, called a hypothesis, that is
consistent with your observation or question.
Make predictions based on the logical implications of the
hypothesis.
Test those predictions with further observations and
analysis and modify the hypothesis in the light of your
results.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no unsatisfactory
discrepancies between hypothesis and observation.
VARIABLES

A variable is something that changes. It changes


according to different factors. Some variables change
easily, like the stock-exchange value, while other
variables are almost constant, like the name of
someone. Researchers are often seeking to
measure variables.
The variable can be a number, a name, or anything
where the value can change.
THEORY

A set of logically consistent ideas about


the relationships between empirical phenomena
(i.e., concepts) that permits those ideas to be tested
using observations.

HYPOTHESIS
A conditional statement that is logically
consistent with a theory and can be tested
with observations.
OBSERVATION

The process of gathering empirical data to


analyze toward the goal of testing
hypotheses.

EMPIRICAL GENERALIZATION
The process of making claims based on
empirical data observed in a particular
context about the relationships between
concepts in a broader set of contexts.
THEORY BUILDING:

The process of contributing and reconciling a


study's findings on a particular subject to the
accumulated understandings of that subject in
scientific scholarship.
ERRORS IN RESEARCH

Logically, there are two types of errors when drawing


conclusions in research:
Type 1 error is when we accept the research
hypothesis when the null hypothesis is in fact
correct.
Type 2 error is when we reject the research
hypothesis even if the null hypothesis is wrong.
RESULT

Significance Test
To test a hypothesis, quantitative research uses significance
tests to determine which hypothesis is right.
The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is
more likely correct than the research hypothesis. Research
methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends
heavily on significance tests.
A significance test may even drive the research process in a
whole new direction, based on the findings.
The t-test (also called the Student's T-Test) is one of
many statistical significance tests, which compares two
supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or
not. The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a
hypothesis is supported or not.
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS

Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of


the research process, not just because the researcher
got the expected result. It has to be based on
the validity and reliability of the measurement, how
good the measurement was to reflect the real world
and what more could have affected the results.
The observations are often referred to as 'empirical
evidence' and the logic/thinking leads to the
conclusions. Anyone should be able to check the
observation and logic, to see if they also reach the
same conclusions.
References

http://www.howtodo.dissertationhelpservice.com/w
hat-is-research-methodology-and-its-importance
http://faculty.vassar.edu/lenevare/2013/soci254/co
ncepts.htm
THANK YOU