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Line : general term for overhead lines and underground cable which is exhibit the

same behavior.
At length of 100-400 km extra high voltage lines.
The active resistance R determined by the conductors material, cross-section
and length.
The inductance L the magnetic field generated when a current flow
through a conductor loop.
The distinction made between two types of capacitance
losses caused by leakage current (corona losses at
high currents), described by the conductance G

The line to line capacitance CL capacitance between any two outer conductor.

CE the capacitance between the outer conductor and

Parameters RE and LE The characteristics of the return conductor (earth,
earth wire)
The line model Consists of 380 kV overhead line comprising group of
four and possessing a cross section of 4 x 300 mm
The model has a longitudinal data (constant):
Single phase sufficient if the operating conditions are symmetric (identical
voltages and currents for the three outer conductors)
The line and earth capacitances at various voltages converted into a new variable
designated the effective or working capacitance CB.
CB = CE + 3 CL
Underground cables have a much higher working capacitance than overhead
The help of element is more advantageous than the T type equivalent circuit.
The transverse elements being applied in a proportion of half each at the
beginning and end of the diagram.
To keep transmission losses within limits, efforts are made in practice to minimize
the conductor resistance R and maximize the conductance G.
R << L and G>> CB
Low loss line with these properties.
If R and G can be neglected entirely, one speaks of a lossless line
Trough lossless line cannot be realized in practice, the simplifications above
become more accurate as the consider voltage level rises. (applies when
investigating the steady state response)
Single phase always necessary to account for star voltages those occurring
between a phase and the neutral point (the voltage measured between two outer
conductors is designated line to line voltage U)
On transition to a three phase system, all power calculate in the single phase (must
be multiplied by a factor of 3 to obtain the total power).
The designations listed below are used (complex variable are underline)
U1, U2 Voltage at lines start and end
UL Voltage drop along the line
I1, I2 Current at lines start and end
I10, 120 Current through the transverse branches at the lines start and end
I12 Current trough the lines longitudinal branch
In the no load state, the terminating resistance R at the lines end is infinitely large
(current I2 = 0)
The processes taking place in circuit operating at sinusoidal voltage are visualized
by phasor diagram.
This diagram enable a simultaneous representation of the magnitude and phase
angle of the AC quantities under examination.
Phasor can added or subtracted graphically, there by allowing a clear display of
voltage drop in network
All phasors rotate at an angular speed denoted by their diagram serving to
provide snapshot of the system under consideration.
In the combined current/voltage phasor diagram, the voltage vector at the end of
the line is defined arbitrarily as the reference phasor and drawn in the same
direction as the real axis.