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Chapter 8

PREJUDICE

Prejudice. A vagrant opinion without visible means of support.


- Ambrose Bierce, The Devils Dictionary, 1911
Introduction
Prejudice comes in many forms. People can have prejudiced notions when it
comes to the following;
- differences in religion and religious beliefs1
- Obese people would often have slim prospects on love and employment2
- On sexual orientation, LGBTs would often experience one form of homophobic bullying,
aggression, crimes, physical assault, and verbal harassment3
- Old people would be subjected to manners and attitudes that show perceptions of
them being frail, incompetent, and unproductive, which would make them feel less
competent and act less capably4
- Immigrants would often report prejudice5
All of these involved some form of negative evaluation towards a group.

1Park
et al., 2009; Pew, 2011; Wike & Grim, 2007; 2Gortmaker et al., 1993; Hebl & Heatherton, 1998; Pingitore et al., 1994; 3Hunt & Jensen, 2007;
Himmelstein & Brckner, 2011; Dick, 2008; Herek, 2009; 4Bugental & Hehman, 2007; 5Pettigrew, 2006
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Prejudice is a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual
members.
- it is considered as an attitude (remember the ABC of attitudes in Chap4)
- A prejudiced person may dislike those different from self and behave in a discriminatory
manner, believing them ignorant and dangerous.
The negative evaluations that mark prejudice often are supported by what we
call as stereotypes, a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people.
- To stereotype is to generalize we often do this to simplify the world
- these would sometimes overgeneralize, be inaccurate, and resistant to new information
(and sometimes accurate).
What common Filipino generalizations can you think of?
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Prejudice is distinct from stereotyping, discrimination, racism, and sexism.

Discrimination is an unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its


members. This behavior often has its source in prejudicial attitudes1.
- according to research, some Western communities would even discriminate based on
how they perceive the names (etc. Said Al-Rahman, Tayshaun Jackson)2

1Dovidio et al., 1996; Wagner et al., 2008; 2Carpusor & Loges, 2006; Butler & Broockman, 2011; Tykocinski & Bareket-Bojmel, 2009
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Attitudes and behavior are often loosely linked. Prejudiced attitudes need not
breed hostile acts, nor does all oppression spring from prejudice. Racism and
sexism are institutional practices that discriminate, even when there is no
prejudicial intent.
- Racism and sexism are an individuals prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior
toward people of a given race/sex, or institutional practices (even if not motivated by
prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race/sex.
- For example, companies could, in practice, hire fewer LGBT employees. Job ads for
male/female dominated vocations may feature words associated with male/female
stereotypes (Ex. with pleasing personality, work in a competitive environment)1

1Gaucher et al., 2011


What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Implicit and Explicit

We can have different explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) attitudes


toward the same person or event. For example, people may retain from
childhood a habitual, automatic fear or dislike of people for whom they now
express respect and admiration.
- Although explicit attitudes may change dramatically with education, implicit attitudes
may linger, changing only as we form new habits through practice1.
- Research have confirmed that prejudiced and stereotypic evaluations can occur outside
peoples awareness. A stimulus may prime (automatically activate) our minds to
stereotype for some racial, gender, or age group. Without their awareness, the
participants activated stereotypes may then bias their behavior2.

1Kawakami et al., 2000; 2Devine & Sharp, 2008; Banaji, 2004; Fazio, 2007; Wittenbrink, 2007; Wittenbrink et al., 1997; Greenwald et al., 2000; Nosek et al.,
2007; Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Racial Prejudice: First Common Form of Prejudice
Is racial prejudice disappearing? People may perceive themselves having low
prejudice but see high prejudice in others1. Still, is racial prejudice becoming a
thing of the past? Explicit prejudicial attitudes can change very quickly.
- In 1942, fewer than a third of all Whites (only 1 in 50 in the South) supported school
integration; by 1980, support for it was 90 percent. In 1958, 4 percent of Americans of
all races approved of Black-White marriagesas did 86 percent in 20112 (Jones, 2011).
- Shared ideals of fair treatment and common understanding of history and ideas helped
lower prejudice3
- Is racial prejudice extinct? Not if we consider the 6,604 reported hate crime incidents I
the US during 20094
- In the US, Whites tend to contrast the present with the oppressive past, perceiving
swift and radical progress. Blacks tend to contrast the present with their ideal world,
which has not yet been realized, and perceive somewhat less progress5
1Jones,2011; 2Devine & Sharp, 2008; Banaji, 2004; Fazio, 2007; Wittenbrink, 2007; Wittenbrink & others, 1997; Greenwald & others, 2000; Nosek & others,
2007; Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; 3Etzioni, 1999; 4FBI, 2008, 2009; 5Eibach & Ehrlinger, 2006
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Racial Prejudice: First Common Form of Prejudice

Prejudice can also be subtle (implicit) and, according to research, it is more


widespread than explicit, overt prejudice. Modern prejudice often appears
subtly, in our preferences for what is familiar, similar, and comfortable1.
- prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behavior surface when they can hide behind
the screen of some other motive (ex. exaggerating ethnic differences, feeling less
admiration and affection for immigrant minorities)2
- modern racism and sexism may take the form of denials of discrimination and in
antagonism toward efforts to promote equality3
- patronizing can also be subtle prejudice when we inflate praise and criticise
insufficiently towards specific groups4

1Dovidio & others, 1992; Esses & others, 1993a; Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005; 2Pedersen & Walker, 1997; Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005a; 3Swim et al, 1995, 1997;
4Harber et al., 1998, 2010.
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Racial Prejudice: First Common Form of Prejudice

Automatic prejudiced reactions are also evident according to several research.


- If we implicitly associate a particular ethnic group with danger, then faces from that
group will tend to capture our attention and trigger arousal1
- Exposing people to weapons makes them pay more attention to faces of specific groups
and even makes police officers more likely to judge stereotypical-looking members of
that group as criminals2
- People may also construe weapons with specific groups of people if they are primed in
the first place, and may often mistake any item as a gun, which may bias the reaction of
most people3

1
Donders et al., 2008; Dotsch & Wigboldus, 2008; Trawalter et al., 2008; 2Eberhardt et al., 2004; 3Payne, 2001, 2006; Judd et al., 2004;
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Gender Prejudice: Second Common Form of Prejudice
How pervasive is prejudice against women? Here we consider gender
stereotypes peoples beliefs about how women and men do behave.
According to most research, two conclusions are indisputable: Strong gender
stereotypes exist, and, as often happens, members of the stereotyped group
accept the stereotypes. Gender stereotypes are much stronger than racial
stereotypes.
- Men who believe women are more emotional outnumber those who dont 15 to 1. At
most, women do believe that they are emotional1
- Gender stereotypes have persisted across time and culture. Research from over 27
countries, found that people everywhere perceive women as more agreeable, and men
as more outgoing. The persistence and omnipresence of gender stereotypes have led
some evolutionary psychologists to believe they reflect innate, stable reality2

1
Jackman and Senter, 1981; 2Williams et al., 1999, 2000; Lueptow et al., 1995
What is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Gender Prejudice: Second Common Form of Prejudice
Sexism can be benevolent and hostile.
- people dont respond to women with gut-level negative emotions as they do to certain other
groups. Most people like women more than men. A favorable stereotype, dubbed the women-
are-wonderful effect, results in a favorable attitude1
- gender attitudes can be ambivalent. Data from 19 countries suggest that gender attitudes
frequently mix a benevolent sexism (Women have a superior moral sensibility) with hostile
sexism (Once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash)2

Explicit gender discrimination is dying, but subtle bias lives on. When people violate
gender stereotypes, social backlash may occur3. Also, explicit discrimination still
occurs in other parts of the world.
- Two-thirds of the worlds unschooled children are girls4
- Around the world, people tend to prefer having baby boys5

1Eaglyet al., 1991, 1994; 2Glick, Flike et al., 1996, 2007; 3Phelan & Rudman, 2010; Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010; 4United Nations, 1991; 5Newport, 2011;
Webley, 2009
What are the Social Sources of Prejudice?
Social Inequalities

Unequal status breeds prejudice. For example, upper-class individuals are more
likely than those in poverty to see peoples fortunes as the outcomes they have
earned, thanks to skill and effort, and not as the result of having connections,
money, and good luck1.
- Colonizers justified imperial expansion by describing exploited colonized people as
inferior, requiring protection, and a burden to be borne2
- Research found that powerful men who stereotype their female subordinates give them
plenty of praise, but fewer resources, thus undermining their performance. This sort of
patronizing allows the men to maintain their positions of power3

1Eagly et al., 1991, 1994; 2Glick, Flike et al., 1996, 2007; 3Phelan & Rudman, 2010; Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010;
What are the Social Sources of Prejudice?
Social Inequalities
Some people, more than others, notice and justify status differences. Those high
in social dominance orientation tend to view people in terms of hierarchies. Its
a motivation to have ones group dominate other social groups they prefer
being on the top. Being in a dominant, high-status position also tends to
promote this orientation1.
- this can lead people to high in social dominance to embrace prejudice and to support
political positions that justify prejudice2.
- this can lead people to pursue action that continues to support their hierarchy and avoid
ones that undermine it3

1Guimond & others, 2003; 2Levin et al., 2011; Pratto et al., 1994; Sidanius et al., 2004; 3Kaiser & Pratt-Hyatt, 2009;
What are the Social Sources of Prejudice?
Socialization
Children are also brought up in ways that foster or reduce prejudice. The family,
religious communities, and the broader society can sustain or reduce prejudices.
It includes authoritarian personality (a personality that is disposed to favor
obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status)
and ethnocentrism (believing in the superiority of ones own ethnic and cultural
group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups).
Religion can also cause prejudice among most people if we define religiousness
as church membership or willingness to agree at least superficially with
traditional religious beliefs1.
Conformity can also maintain prejudice if it is socially accepted2, especially
gender prejudice3.
1Hall & others, 2010; Johnson & others, 2011; 2Ford & others, 2008; Zitek & Hebl, 2007; 3Stout & others, 2011;
What are the Social Sources of Prejudice?
Institutional Support
Government may bolster prejudice through overt policies such as segregation, or
by passively reinforcing the status quo. Similarly, political leaders may both
reflect and reinforce prevailing attitudes.

Schools are one of the institutions most prone to reinforce dominant cultural
attitudes. An analysis of stories in 134 childrens readers written before 1970
found that male characters outnumbered female characters three to one1.

Media can have the same effect. For example, research found that that about
two-thirds of the average male photo, but less than half of the average female
photo, was devoted to the face (female photos tend to concentrate on the
body)2.
1Women on Words and Images, 1972; 2Archer et al. 1983; Nigro et al., 1988.
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Frustration and Aggression
Frustration (the blocking of a goal) can lead to hostility. When the cause of our
frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility (called
displaced aggression).
- for example, this may have contributed to the lynchings of African Americans in the
South after the Civil War. Between 1882 and 1930, in a time when cotton prices were
low and economic frustration was therefore presumably high1
Competition is an important source of frustration that can fuel prejudice. When
two groups compete for jobs, housing, or social prestige, one groups goal
fulfillment can become the other groups frustration. Thus, the realistic group
conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises when groups compete for scarce
resources2.

1Hepworth & West, 1988; Hovland & Sears, 1940; 2Maddux et al., 2008; Pereira et al., 2010; Sassenberg et al., 2007
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Feeling Superior to Others
People also are motivated to view themselves and their groups as superior to
other groups. Even trivial group memberships lead people to favor their group
over others. A threat to self-image heightens such ingroup favoritism, as does
the need to belong.
We also define ourselves by our groups. Self-concept contains not just a personal
identity but also a social identity which is a we aspect of our self-concept; the
part of our answer to Who am I? that comes from our group memberships.
For example, Lea identifies herself as a woman, a Visaya, a Catholic, a
Pamantasan ng Cabuyao student, a De Los Reyes family member. We carry such
social identities like playing cards, playing them when appropriate.
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Feeling Superior to Others

Various kinds of motivations underlie the hostilities of prejudice. Motivations


can also lead people to avoid prejudice.

People also are motivated to view themselves and their groups as superior to
other groups. Even trivial group memberships lead people to favor their group
over others. A threat to self-image heightens such ingroup favoritism, as does
the need to belong.

Tajfel and Turner (19472011) proposed social identity theory to explain these
things. They observed the following:
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Feeling Superior to Others

We categorize: We find it useful to put people, ourselves included, into


categories. To label someone as a Hindu, a Scot, or a bus driver is a
shorthand way of saying some other things about the person.
We identify: We associate ourselves with certain groups (our ingroups ) and
gain self-esteem by doing so.
We compare: We contrast our groups with other groups (outgroups), with a
favorable bias toward our own group.
We humans naturally divide others into those inside and those outside our
group. We also evaluate ourselves partly by our group memberships because
it strengthens our self-concepts. It feels good. We seek not only respect for
ourselves but also pride in our groups1.
1Smith & Tyler, 1997
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Feeling Superior to Others

Ingroup is us, a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of


common identity.

Outgroup is them, a group that people perceive as distinctively different from


or apart from their ingroup.

Because of our social identifications, we conform to our group norms. We


sacrifice ourselves for team, family, nation. And the more important our social
identity and the more strongly attached we feel to a group, the more we react
prejudicially to threats from another group1.
1
Crocker & Luhtanen, 1990; Hinkle et al., 1992
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Feeling Superior to Others
The group definition of who you areyour gender, race, religion, marital status,
academic majorimplies a definition of who you are not. The circle that
includes us (the ingroup) excludes them (the outgroup). This experience of
being formed into groups may promote ingroup bias, a tendency to favor ones
own group.
- it expresses and supports a positive self concept
- it feeds favouritism
- ingroup liking may foster outgroup disliking
What are the Motivational Sources of Prejudice?
Feeling Superior to Others
Status is relative: To perceive ourselves as having status, we need people below
us. Thus, one psychological benefit of prejudice, or of any status system, is a
feeling of superiority.

People regard themselves when their self esteem is threatened. They would
often exhibit terror management, a persons self-protective emotional and
cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural
worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality.
For example, in Iran, reminders of death increased college students support for
suicide attacks against the United States.
What are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?
Categorization
People tend to categorize people into groups through spontaneous
categorization and perceived similarities and differences.

We spontaneously categorize people by race. We label people of widely varying


ancestry as simply Filipino or half Filipino, as if such categories were black
and white. When individuals view different people making statements, they
often forget who said what but remember the race of the person who made
each statement.
What are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?
Categorization
People would easily point out groups by looking at similarities and differences.
This can create an outgroup homogeneity effect, a perception of outgroup
members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus
they are alike; we are diverse. This could also lead to what we call as own
race bias, the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their
own race. (Also called the cross-race effect or other-race effect)
What are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?
Distinctiveness
Other ways we perceive our worlds also breed stereotypes. Distinctive people
and vivid or extreme occurrences often capture attention and distort
judgments.
- it feeds self-consciousness
- it may also contribute to stigma consciousness, a persons expectation of being
victimized by prejudice or discrimination.

The downside is that those who perceive themselves as frequent victims live
with the stress of presumed stereotypes and antagonism, and therefore
experience lower well-being.
What are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?
Attribution
Because gender-role constraints were hard to see, we attributed mens and
womens behavior solely to their presumed innate dispositions. The more people
assume that human traits are fixed dispositions, the stronger are their
stereotypes and the greater their acceptance of racial inequities. This would
often lead to group-serving bias, which is explaining away outgroup members
positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while
excusing such behavior by ones own group).
What are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?
Attribution
Also, people are prone to thinking of just-world phenomenon, the tendency of
people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they
deserve and deserve what they get.
- this would often affect most peoples perception of victims
- such beliefs enable successful people to reassure themselves that they, too, deserve
what they have
- this can also lead people to justify their cultures familiar social systems. The way things
are, were inclined to think, is the way things ought to be.
What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Self Perpetuating Prejudgements
Prejudice involves preconceived judgments. Prejudgments are inevitable: None
of us is a dispassionate bookkeeper of social happenings, tallying evidence for
and against our biases.
- Prejudgments guide our attention and our memories. People who accept gender
stereotypes often misrecall their own school grades in stereotype-consistent ways.
Moreover, after we judge an item as belonging to a category such as a particular race or
sex, our memory for it later shifts toward the features we associate with that category1.
- Prejudgments are self-perpetuating. Whenever a member of a group behaves as
expected, we duly note the fact; our prior belief is confirmed. When a member of a
group behaves inconsistently with our expectation, we may interpret or explain away the
behavior as due to special circumstances2.

1Chatard et al., 2007; Huart et al., 2005; 2Crocker et al., 1983;


What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Self Perpetuating Prejudgements
We do notice information that is strikingly inconsistent with a stereotype, but
even that information has less impact than might be expected. When we focus
on an atypical example, we can salvage the stereotype by splitting off a new
category1.
- We call this as subtyping, which is accommodating individuals who deviate from ones
stereotype by thinking of them as exceptions to the rule. They are an exception to the
group.
A different way to accommodate the inconsistent information is to form a new
stereotype for those who dont fit2.
- We call this as subgrouping, which is accommodating individuals who deviate from ones
stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group. They are
acknowledged as part of the overall group.

1Brewer & Gaertner, 2004; Hewstone, 1994; Kunda & Oleson, 1995, 1997; 2Richards & Hewstone, 2001;
What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Discriminations Impact: The Self Fulfilling Prophecy
Attitudes may coincide with the social hierarchy not only as a rationalization for
it but also because discrimination affects its victims.
In The Nature of Prejudice, Gordon Allport catalogued 15 possible effects of
victimization. He believed these reactions were reducible to two basic types -
those that involve blaming oneself (withdrawal, self-hate, aggression against
ones own group) and those that involve blaming external causes (fighting back,
suspiciousness, increased group pride). If victimization takes a toll - for instance,
higher rates of crime - people can use the result to justify the discrimination.
Are people affected by discrimination? Yes, but not all. Discrimination, if it is a
part of social beliefs, can induce a self fulfilling prophecy1.

1Word et al., 1974;


What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Stereotype Threat
Just being sensitive to prejudice is enough to make us self-conscious when living
as a numerical. As with other circumstances that siphon off our mental energy
and attention, the result can be diminished mental and physical stamina. This
phenomenon is called a stereotype threat, a disruptive concern, when facing a
negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype1.

1
Steele, 2010; Steele et al., 2002;
What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Stereotype Threat
How does stereotype threat undermine performance?
- Stress. fMRI brain scans suggest that the stress of stereotype threat impairs brain activity
associated with mathematical processing and increases activity in areas associated with
emotion processing1.
- Self-monitoring. Worrying about making mistakes disrupts focused attention. In
interracial interactions, Blacks and Latinos (concerned with stereotypes of their
intelligence) seek respect and to be seen as competent, whereas Whites (concerned
with their image as racist) seek to be liked and seen as moral2.
- Suppressing unwanted thoughts and emotions. The effort required to regulate ones
thinking takes energy and disrupts working memory3

Positive stereotypes, though, enhance performance.


1Steele, 2010; Steele et al., 2002; 2Keller & Dauenheimer, 2003; Seibt & Forster, 2004; Bergsieker & others, 2010; 3Bonnot & Croizet, 2007;
What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Stereotype Threat
How does stereotype threat undermine performance?
- Stress. fMRI brain scans suggest that the stress of stereotype threat impairs brain activity
associated with mathematical processing and increases activity in areas associated with
emotion processing1.
- Self-monitoring. Worrying about making mistakes disrupts focused attention. In
interracial interactions, Blacks and Latinos (concerned with stereotypes of their
intelligence) seek respect and to be seen as competent, whereas Whites (concerned
with their image as racist) seek to be liked and seen as moral2.
- Suppressing unwanted thoughts and emotions. The effort required to regulate ones
thinking takes energy and disrupts working memory3

Positive stereotypes, though, enhance performance.


1Steele, 2010; Steele et al., 2002; 2Keller & Dauenheimer, 2003; Seibt & Forster, 2004; Bergsieker & others, 2010; 3Bonnot & Croizet, 2007;
What are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Do Stereotypes Bias Judgments of Individuals?
Yes, but not always.
Our stereotypes mostly reflect reality.
- People differ - and can perceive and appreciate those differences.
People often evaluate individuals more positively than the groups they compose.
- if an individual knew a person, who belongs in a different book beforehand, that person
would be evaluated more positively.
Stereotypes, especially when strong, can predispose how we perceive people and
interpret events.
- it can also bias out interpretation of them and their actions