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GENETIC INFORMATION

DNA carries the genetic information


Transmit to each daughter cell when cells divide.
Gene
Genome
Chromosome
Each chromosome contains a single very long DNA
molecule composed of ~ 106 or more nucleotides in a
specific sequence.
GENOME

The genome is the entire DNA content of a cell, including all of the
genes and all of the intergenic sequence
The human genome contains ~ 8o.ooo genes but the coding
regions of these genes take up only 3% of the genome
The yeast genome contains 6000 genes and has a more compact
organization
Prokaryotic genomes are small with very little space between
genes
Understanding the information contained in genome sequences will
be the major challenge of the early 21st century.
Human Genome
Nuclear genome:
3 X 109 bp of DNA
24 linear DNA molecules (55 250 Mb) in a different chromosome.
24 chromosome : 22 autosomes and
2 sex chromosomes (X and Y)

Mitochondrial genome:
A circular DNA molecule of 16560 bp
Located in mitochondria

1015 cells in adult human body:


Somatic cells diploid (2 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes)
Sex cells (gametes) haploid (1 autosome and 1 sex chromosome)
DNA
Polymeric molecules made up of linear, unbranched
chains of monomeric subunits called nucleotides
Each nucleotide: a sugar, a phosphate group and a
base
Sugar: 2-deoxyribose
Bases: Adenine (A), Cytosine , Guanine (G),
Thymine (T)
Phosphodiester bonds Polynucleotide
Double stranded Double helix
Hydrogen bonds between complementary bases
Base pairing: A and T, G and C
RNA

Sugar: 2-ribose
Thymine (T) in DNA is replaced by Uracil (U) in RNA
Rarely more than a few thousands nucleotides in
length
Usually single-stranded
Base pairs might be formed between different parts of
a single molecule
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
GENE

A segment of the genome that is transcribed into RNA


The nucleotide sequences of DNA or RNA (virus)
encode the genetic information
The coding region of a gene: only ~ 3% of the genome
The information contained in a gene is read by proteins
that attached to the genome at the appropriate
positions and initiate the gene expression.
Genes in eukaryotes: discontinous Exon and Intron
Transfer of Genetic Information

DNA Replication
Gene Transcription: RNA synthesis
Genetic code or codon in mRNA
Translation: Protein synthesis
DNA Replication

A complete copy of the genome must be made


every time a cell divides
Synthesis of DNA
DNA replication has to be extremely accurate
in order to avoid the introduction of mutations
into the genome copies.
Proof-reading mechanism
MUTATION

Errors in replication
Effects of chemical and physical mutagens that
directly alter the chemical structure of DNA
Deletion, Insertion, Substitution
Repair process:
DNA repair enzyme (DNA polymerase)
Recombination
Photoreactivation
Human Genome Projects
To obtain the complete sequences of human genome
Genome sequences: the key to the continued
development of not only molecular biology and
genetics, but also biochemistry, cell biology and
physiology molecular life sciences.
A catalog containing a description of the sequence of
every gene in a genome
A comprehensive description of the molecular activities
of living cells and the ways in which these activities are
controlled.