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Integers & Fractions

What is an integer?
An integer is a positive or negative whole number, including 0.
-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3

In daily life, negative numbers are required to record all events


such as the temperature of a very cold weather (below zero
degree celcius) as experienced in Japan, the tops of Himalay
Mountains, in the Polar region and so on.
Expressing a relationship between
two integers
In a horizontal number line, integers can be expressed as follow

* If a number is greater than the others, then it located to the right of them.
* If a number is less than the others, then it located to the left of them.
Example
1. Which temperature is higher, -8 or -5 ?
Ans : -5 is higher
2. Insert the < or > symbols in between each of the following number pair to
form a true statement.
a. 4 and -5 b. -15 and -7
Ans : a. 4 > -5
b. -15 < -7
Operation of Integers

There are 4 integer operation


1. Addition
2. Subtraction
3. Multiplication
4. Division
Addition of Integers
The Properties of addition of integers
a. Commutative
The addition of two integers always produces the same result even though the
order of that addition is different.
(-2) + (-3) = (-3) + (-2) = -5
2 + (-2) = (-2) + 2 = 0
b. The Identity element in addition
0 + (-3) = -3 (-1) + 0 = -1
0 + (-2) = -2 (-5) + 0 = -5
Based on the above addition, it is apparent that if 0 is added to a umber or a
number is added to 0, the the result is the number itself. For this reason 0 is
called the identity element or the natural element of addition.

c. The assosiative Property of addition


For any integers a, b and c :( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + c )
This rule is called the assosiative property of addition
Subtraction of Integers

The opposite (additive inverse) of a is a


The opposite (additive inverse) of -a is a
Subtracting a number from another number is equivalent to adding the opposite
of that number to another number
Example
1. 8 9 -8 + (-9) = -17
2. 6 (-10) 6 + 10 = 16
3. The altitude of three cities A, B and C are 125 m, -20 m and -35m above
the sea level. How many meters is the difference of each of the following
two cities ?
a. A from B c. A from C
b. B from C
Multiplication and their properties
Multiplying Positive & Negative Integers
- For each number a and b, a x (-b) = -ab
- For each number a and b, (-a) x b = -ab
- For each number a and b, (-a) x (-b) = ab
Division of Integers
- If p and q are member of any integers then :
p:q=r rxq=p p:r=q
- The quotient of a negative integer and a positive integer is a negative integer
- The quotient of a positive integer and a negative integer is a negative integer
- The quotient of a negative integer and a negative integer is a postif integer
What is the result of 8 : 0 ??
For any integer of a, then a : 0 is undefined

For any integer of a where as a is not 0 then 0 : a = 0


Fractions
A. Definition of Fraction
If a cake is divided into two equal parts, each piece is 1
2
part of the whole
1
If a cake is divided into two equal parts, each piece is part of the whole
4

1
2 and 1
4 are called fractions

1 Numerator
Denumerator
2
B. Equivalent Fraction

1
Since the area of the shaded section are equal, the fraction , 2 , 3 and 4 are equal.
2 4 6 8
These fractions are called equivalent fractions.

OR

a m
and are equivalent if axn mxb ; a, b, m, n are integers
b n
C. Comparing the Fractions

a m a m
is greater than if a x n b x m
b n, written b n

a m a m
is less than , written if a x n b x m
b n b n

a m a m
is equal to , written if axn bxm
b n b n
D. Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

a m
If and are fractions then
b n To add or subtract fractions
with different denominators, first
a m an bm
1. change them into fractions with
b n bn
the same denominators by finding
their Least Common Multiple
2. a m an bm
b n bn (LCM)
Example
1. 1 3 2 3 5 The LCM of 4 and 8 is 8
4 8 8 8 8
2 2
2. 4 3 ...
3 5
E. The Multiplication and Division of Fractions

a m
If and are fractions then
b n

a m a.m
1. x
b n b.n
a m a n
2. : x
b n b m
Exponentiation of Integers
If n is a positif integers and b 0 then b n is defined as follows :
b n b
bb b
...
nfactor

Example :
1. 35 3 3 3 3 3 243
2. 8 10 8 10 10 10 10 80000
4
The Properties of Exponentiated Integers
1. a m a n a mn

mn
2. a :a a
m n

m 1
3. a m
a
Standard Forms
In standard form,
a large number is expressed as a 10 n where 1 a 10 and n is a natural number.
a small number is expressed as a 10 n where 1 a 10 and n is a natural number.
Example
1. Express the following number in standard form
a. 345.6 b. 10,000,000
c. 0.045 d. 0.000111
2. Express as a decimal
a. 8.3 10 2
b. 6.34 10 5