Fluid mechanics and thermal physics

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Fluid mechanics and thermal physics

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E-mail : dxhoi@hcmiu.edu.vn

PHYSICS 2

(FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS)

02 credits (30 periods)

Chapter 1 Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 2 Heat, Temperature and the Zeroth

Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 3 Heat, Work and the First Law of

Thermodynamics

Chapter 4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 5 Entropy and the Second Law of

Thermodynamics

References :

Halliday D., Resnick R. and Walker, J. (2005),

Fundamentals of Physics, Extended seventh edition.

John Willey and Sons, Inc.

Alonso M. and Finn E.J. (1992). Physics, Addison-Wesley

Publishing Company

Hecht, E. (2000). Physics. Calculus, Second Edition.

Brooks/Cole.

Faughn/Serway (2006), Serways College Physics,

Brooks/Cole.

Roger Muncaster (1994), A-Level Physics, Stanley

Thornes.

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.htm

http://www.opensourcephysics.org/index.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-

astr.gsu.edu/hbase/HFrame.html

http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Default.ht

ml

http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/

http://www.iop.org/index.html

.

.

.

CHAPTER 4

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Ideal Gases, Experimental Laws and the Equation

of State

Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas The Equipartition

of Energy

The Boltzmann Distribution Law

The Distribution of Molecular Speeds

Mean Free Path

The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas

Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas

1. Ideal Gases, Experimental Laws and the

Equation of State

1.1 Notions

Properties of gases

A gas does not have a fixed volume or pressure

In a container, the gas expands to fill the container

Ideal gas

Collection of atoms or molecules that move randomly

Molecules exert no long-range force on one another

Molecules occupy a negligible fraction of the

volume of their container

Most gases at room temperature

and pressure behave approximately

as an ideal gas

1.2 Moles

given volume in terms of the number of moles, n

mass

n

molar mass

contains as many particles as there are atoms in

12 g of carbon-12

1.3 Avogadros Hypothesis

Equal volumes of gas at the same temperature and

pressure contain the same numbers of molecules

Corollary: At standard temperature and pressure, one

mole quantities of all gases contain the same number of

molecules

This number is called NA

Can also look at the total number of particles: N nN A

Avogadros Number

NA=6.02 x 1023 particles / mole

The mass of an individual atom :

molar mass

matom

NA

PROBLEM 1 The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost

pure carbon and the Rosser Reeves (138 carats) is primarily

aluminum oxide (Al2O3). One carat is equivalent to a mass of

0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the

Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the

ruby Rosser Reeves.

SOLUTION

(a) The mass of the Hope diamond :

mHope (44.8 carats )(0.200 g / carat ) 8.90 g

The number of moles in the Hope diamond :

mHope 8.90 g

nHope 0.741 mol

mass per mole 12.011 g / mol

The number of carbon atoms in the Hope diamond :

N H (0.741 mol )N A

(0.741 mol )(6.022 1023 atoms / mol ) 4.46 1023 atoms

PROBLEM 1 The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost

pure carbon and the Rosser Reeves (138 carats) is primarily

aluminum oxide (Al2O3). One carat is equivalent to a mass of

0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the

Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the

ruby Rosser Reeves.

SOLUTION

(b) The mass of the Rosser Reeves :

mR (138 carats )(0.200 g / carat ) 27.6 g

Molecular mass :

mR 2(26.9815 u ) 3(15.9994 u ) 101.9612 u 101.9612 g / mol

The number of moles in the Rosser Reeves :

mR 27.6 g

nR 0.271 mol

mass per mole 101.9612 g / mol

PROBLEM 1 The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost

pure carbon and the Rosser Reeves (138 carats) is primarily

aluminum oxide (Al2O3). One carat is equivalent to a mass of

0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the

Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the

ruby Rosser Reeves.

SOLUTION

(b)

N R (0.271 mol )N A

(0.271 mol )(6.022 1023 atoms / mol ) 1.63 1023 molecules

1.4 Experimental Laws

Boyles Law

Experiment :

Conclusion :

When the gas is kept at a constant

temperature, its pressure is

inversely proportional to its volume

(Boyles law)

PV const

Charles Law

Experiment :

Conclusion :

At a constant pressure, the

temperature is directly proportional

to the volume

(Charles law)

V CT

( C : constant )

Gay-Lussacs Law

Experiment :

Conclusion :

At a constant volume, the temperature

is directly proportional to the pressure

(Gay-Lussac law)

T CP

( C : constant )

1.5 Equation of State for an Ideal Gas

Boyles law : T = const PV const

Gay-Lussac law : V = constant T CP

m

n (M : molar mass-g/mol)

M

Equation of state for an ideal gas :

PV = nRT (Ideal gas law)

T : absolute temperature in kelvins

R : a universal constant that is the same for all gases

R =8.315 J/mol.K

PV

R

nT

Definition of an Ideal Gas :

An ideal gas is one for which PV/nT is constant at

all pressures

Total number of molecules : N nN A

N

PV = RT = R nT

NA NA

With Boltzmanns constant :

R 8.315 J / mol .K

kB = = 1.38 10 23

J /K

N A 6.22 10 mol

23 1

Ideal gas law for an quantity of gas: PV = CT

Test

An ideal gas is confined to a container with constant

volume. The number of moles is constant. By what

factor will the pressure change if the absolute

temperature triples?

a. 1/9

b. 1/3

c. 3.0

d. 9.0

PROBLEM 2 An ideal gas occupies a volume of 100cm3

at 20C and 100 Pa.

(a) Find the number of moles of gas in the container

(b) How many molecules are in the container?

SOLUTION

(a) The number of moles of gas :

PV (100 Pa )(104 m 3 )

n 4.10 106 mol

RT (8.315 J / mol )(293 K )

(b)The number molecules in the container :

N (4.10 10 6 mol )N A

(4.10 10 6 mol )(6.022 1023 atoms / mol )

2.47 1018 molecules

PROBLEM 3 A certain scuba tank is designed to hold 66 ft3

of air when it is at atmospheric pressure at 22C. When this

volume of air is compressed to an absolute pressure of

3 000 lb/in.2 and stored in a 10-L (0.35-ft3) tank, the air

becomes so hot that the tank must be allowed to cool before it

can be used.

(a) If the air does not cool, what is its temperature? (Assume

that the air behaves like an ideal gas.)

Breathing Apparatus)

(a) The number of moles n remains constant :

PV PV PV

nR 1 1

2 2

; T 2 2 2 T1

T1 T2 PV1 1

(3000 lb / in .2 )(0.35 ft 3 )

(295 K ) 319 K

(14.7 lb / in . )(66 ft )

2 3

PROBLEM 3 A certain scuba tank is designed to hold 66 ft3

of air when it is at atmospheric pressure at 22C. When this

volume of air is compressed to an absolute pressure of

3 000 lb/in.2 and stored in a 10-L (0.35-ft3) tank, the air

becomes so hot that the tank must be allowed to cool before it

can be used.

(b) What is the air temperature in degrees Celsius and in

degrees Fahrenheit?

(b) 45.9C; 115F.

PROBLEM 4 A sculpa consists of a 0.0150 m3 tank filled

with compressed air at a pressure of 2.02107 Pa. Assume that

air is consumed at a rate of 0.0300 m3 per minute and that the

temperature is the same at all depths, determine how long the

diver can stay under seawater at a depth of

(a) 10.0 m and (b) 30.0 m

The density of seawater is = 1025 kg/m3.

SOLUTION

(a) P2 P1 gh

1.01 105 Pa (1025 kg / m 3 )(9.80 m / s 2 )(10.0 m )

2.01 105 Pa

PV (2.02 10 5

Pa )(0.0150 m 3

)

V2 1 1

1.51 m 3

P2 (1.01 105 Pa )

The volume available for breathing :

1.51 m 3 0.0150 m 3 1.50 m 3

PROBLEM 4 A sculpa consists of a 0.0150 m3 tank filled

with compressed air at a pressure of 2.02107 Pa. Assume that

air is consumed at a rate of 0.0300 m3 per minute and that the

temperature is the same at all depths, determine how long the

diver can stay under seawater at a depth of

(a) 10.0 m and (b) 30.0 m

The density of seawater is = 1025 kg/m3.

SOLUTION

(a) The compressed air will last for :

1.50 m 3

t 50.0 min

0.0300 m / min

3

The deeper dive must have a shorter duration

PROBLEM 5 A spray can containing a propellant gas at

twice atmospheric pressure (202 kPa) and having a volume of

125 cm3 is at 22C. It is then tossed into an open fire. When

the temperature of the gas in the can reaches 195C, what is

the pressure inside the can? Assume any change in the volume

of the can is negligible.

SOLUTION

The number of moles n remains constant :

PV PV

nR 1 1

2 2

T1 T2

Because the initial and final volumes

of the gas are assumed to be equal :

P1 P2 T2 (468 K )

; P2 P1 (202 kPa ) 320 kPa

T1 T 2 T1 (295 K )

PROBLEM 6 An ideal gas at 20.0OC at a pressure of 1.50

105 Pa when has a number of moles of 6.1610-2 mol.

(a) Find the volume of the gas.

SOLUTION

(a) The volume :

nRT (6.16 102 mol )(8.315 J / mol )(293 K )

V

P (1.50 105 Pa )

1.00 103 m 3 1.00 L

PROBLEM 6 An ideal gas at 20.0OC at a pressure of 1.50

105 Pa when has a number of moles of 6.1610-2 mol.

(b) The gas expands to twice its original volume, while the

pressure falls to atmospheric pressure. Find the final

temperature.

SOLUTION

(a) The volume :

nRT (6.16 102 mol )(8.315 J / mol )(293 K )

V

P (1.50 105 Pa )

1.00 103 m 3 1.00 L

(b) n R PV

1 1 PV

2 2 ;

T1 T2

PV (1.01 105 Pa )(2.00 L )

T2 2 2

T1 (293 K ) 395 K

PV1 1 (1.50 10 Pa )(1.00 L )

5

PROBLEM 7 A beachcomber finds a corked bottle

containing a message. The air in the bottle is at the

atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 30.0OC. The cork

has the cross-sectional area of 2.30 cm3. The beachcomber

places the bottle over a fire, figuring the increased pressure

will pushout the cork. At a temperature of 99oC the cork is

ejected from the bottle

(a) What was the the pressure in the bottle just before the

cork left it ?

SOLUTION

(a) PV PV

nR 1 1

2 1 ;

T1 T2

T2 (372 K )

P2 P1 (1.01 105 Pa ) 1.24 105 Pa

T1 (303 K )

Message in a bottle found 24 years later - Yahoo!7

PROBLEM 7 A beachcomber finds a corked bottle

containing a message. The air in the bottle is at the

atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 30.0OC. The cork

has the cross-sectional area of 2.30 cm3. The beachcomber

places the bottle over a fire, figuring the increased pressure

will pushout the cork. At a temperature of 99oC the cork is

ejected from the bottle

(b) What force of friction held the cork in place?

SOLUTION

(b) F 0 ; Pin A Pout A Ffric 1 0

Ffric (Pin Pout )A

(1.24 105 Pa 1.01 105 Pa )(2.30 104 m 2 )

5.29 N

PROBLEM 8 A room of volume 60.0 m3 contains air having

an equivalent molar mass of 29.0 g/mol. If the temperature of

the room is raised from 17.0C to 37.0C, what mass of air (in

kilograms) will leave the room? Assume that the air pressure in

the room is maintained at 101 kPa.

SOLUTION

m

PV n RT RT

PV 1 1

m1 m2

R T1 T 2

(29.0 10 3 kg / mol )(1.01 105 Pa ) 60.0 m 3 1 1

(8.31 J / mol .K ) 290 K 310 K

4.70 kg

2 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas

2.1 Assumptions of the molecular model of an ideal gas

identical molecules, each with mass m.

The molecules behave as point particles; their size is small in

comparison to the average distance between particles and to the

dimensions of the container.

The molecules are in constant

motion; they obey Newton's

laws of motion. Each molecule

Brownian

collides occasionally with a wall of motion

the container. These collisions are

perfectly elastic. A particle

having a

The container walls are perfectly brownian

motion inside

rigid and infinitely massive and do

a polymer like

not move. network

2.2 Collisions and Gas Pressure

Consider a cubical box with sides of length d

containing an ideal gas. The molecule shown

moves with velocity v.

Consider the collision of one molecule moving

with a velocity v toward the right-hand face of

the box

Elastic collision with the wall Its x component

of momentum is reversed, while its y component

remains unchanged : p x mv x (mv x ) 2mv x

The average force exerted on the molecule :

2mv x 2mv x mv x2

F1

t 2d / v x d

The average force exerted by the molecule on the wall :

mv x2 mv x2

F1

d d

The total force F exerted by all the

molecules on the wall :

m

F v x21 v x2 2 ...

d

The average value of the square of the

velocity in the x direction for N molecules :

v 2

v 2

... v 2

v x2 x 1 x 2 xN

N

Nm 2

F vx

d

N mv 2

v 2 v x2 v y2 v z2 ; v 2 v x2 v y2 v z2 ; v 2 3v x2 ; F

3 d

The total pressure exerted on the wall:

F F 1 N 2 1 N 2 N 1 2

P 2 3 mv mv 2

; P mv

A d 3 d 3 V 3 V 2

2 N 1

P mv 2

3 V 2

The equation of state for an ideal gas : PV NkT

2 1 2

T 2 mv

3k

Temperature is a direct measure of average molecular

kinetic energy 1 3

mv kT

2

2 2

3

The average translational kinetic energy per molecule is kT

2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

v x2 v 2 mv x kT ; mv y kT ; mv z kT

2 2 2

3 2 2 2 2 2 2

Each degree of freedom contributes to the energy of a

system: 1 kT

2

(the theorem of equipartition of energy)

1 3

mv 2 kT

2 2

The total translational kinetic energy of N molecules of gas

1 3 3

E trans N mv 2 NkT nRT

2 2 2

N

n : The number of moles of gas

NA

R

k : Boltzmanns constant

NA

Assume: Ideal gas is a monatomic gas (which has

individual atoms rather than molecules: helium, neon, or

argon) and the internal energy Eint of ideal gas is simply the

sum of the translational kinetic energies of its atoms

3 3

E int E trans NkT nRT

2 2

The root-mean-square (rms) speed of the molecules :

v rms v 2

1

mv rms

2 1 3

mv 2 k BT ;

3kT 3RT

2 2 2

v rms

m M

M is the molar mass in kilograms per mole : M = mNA

PROBLEM 9 Five gas molecules chosen at random are

found to have speeds of 500, 600,700, 800, and 900 m/s.

Find the rms speed. Is it the same as the average speed?

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 10 A tank used for filling helium balloons has a

volume of 0.300 m3 and contains 2.00 mol of helium gas at

20.0C. Assuming that the helium behaves like an ideal gas,

(a) what is the total translational kinetic energy of the

molecules of the gas?

SOLUTION

(a)

PROBLEM 10 A tank used for filling helium balloons has a

volume of 0.300 m3 and contains 2.00 mol of helium gas at

20.0C. Assuming that the helium behaves like an ideal gas,

(b) What is the average kinetic energy per molecule?

(c) Using the fact that the molar mass of helium is

4.00103 kg/mol, determine the rms speed of the atoms

at 20.0C.

SOLUTION

(b)

(c)

PROBLEM 11 (a) What is the average translational kinetic

energy of a molecule of an ideal gas at a temperature of

27C ?

(b) What is the total random translational kinetic energy of

the molecules in 1 mole of this gas?

(c) What is the root-mean-square speed of oxygen molecules

at this temperature ?

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

PROBLEM 11 (a) What is the average translational kinetic

energy of a molecule of an ideal gas at a temperature of

27C ?

(b) What is the total random translational kinetic energy of

the molecules in 1 mole of this gas?

(c) What is the root-mean-square speed of oxygen molecules

at this temperature ?

SOLUTION

(c)

PROBLEM 12 (a) A deuteron, 21H, is the nucleus of a

hydrogen isotope and consists of one proton and one

neutron. The plasma of deuterons in a nuclear fusion reactor

must be heated to about 300 million K. What is the rms

speed of the deuterons? Is this a significant fraction of the

speed of light (c = 3.0 x 108 m/s) ?

(b) What would the temperature of the plasma be if the

deuterons had an rms speed equal to 0.10c ?

SOLUTION

2.3 The Boltzmann Distribution Law

The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function

Law of Exponential Atmospheres

Consider the distribution of molecules in our atmosphere :

Determine how the number of molecules per unit volume

varies with altitude

Consider an atmospheric layer of

thickness dy and cross-sectional area

A, having N particles. The air is in

static equilibrium :

dP mgnV dy where nV is the number density.

From the equation of state : PV Nk BT ; P nV k BT ; dP k BTdnV

nV y

dnV mg dnV mg

mgnV dy k BTdnV ;

nV

k BT

dy ; nV

k BT dy ;

n0 0

nV y

dnV mg nV mg y

dy ; ln nV n y 0

nV k BT 0 k BT

n0 0

mg nV mg nV mg

ln nV ln n0 y ; ln y ; exp y

k BT n0 k BT n0 k BT

nV mg nV mg

ln y ; exp y

n0 k BT n0 k BT

U / k BT

nV n0e

finding the molecules in a particular energy state varies

exponentially as the negative of the energy divided by kBT.

PROBLEM 13 What is the number density of air at an

altitude of 11.0 km (the cruising altitude of a commercial

jetliner) compared with its number density at sea level?

Assume that the air temperature at this height is the same as

that at the ground, 20C.

SOLUTION

The Boltzmann distribution law : nV n0e mgy /kBT

Assume an average molecular mass of :

28.9 u 4.80 1026 kg

The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function

Density of the number of molecules with speeds between v

and dv :

mv 2 /2kT mv 2 /2kT

NV (v )dV e dV e v 2dv sin d d

2

NV (v )dv e mv /2kT

2

v 2dv sin d d

0 0

mv 2 /2kT

NV (v )dv 4 e v 2dv

mv 2 /2kT

NV (v )dv A 4 e v 2dv

With : NV (v )dv N

mv /2kT 2

2

A 4 e v dv N

Poisson's Integral Formula:

ax 2 1

e dx

2 a

0

and dv is

3/2

m 2 mv 2 / 2kT

NV 4 N v e

2 kT

Density of the number of molecules with speeds between v

and dv is

3/2

m 2 mv 2 / 2kT

NV 4 N v e

2 kT

v 8kT / m 1.60 kT / m

The most probable speed:

v mp 2kT / m 1.41 kT / m

v rms v v mp

PROOF: Definition: The average value of v n :

1

vn n

Nv dv

v

N 0

The average speed:

1

m

3/2

2 mv 2 /2kT

v v 4 N 2 kT v e dv

N 0

v 8kT / m 1.60 kT / m

The mean square speed:

1

m

3/2

2 mv 2 /2kT

v v 4 N

2 2

2 kT v e dv 3kT / m

N 0

v rms v 2 3kT / m 1.73 kT / m

The most probable speed:

dNv d m

3/2

0; 4 N

2 mv 2 /2kT

v e 0 ; v mp 2kT / m

dv dv 2 kT

PROBLEM 14 For diatomic carbon dioxide gas ( CO2 , molar

mass 44.0 g/mol) at T = 300 K, calculate

(a) the most probable speed vmp;

(b) the average speed vav;

(c) the root-mean-square speed vrms.

SOLUTION

The rms speed : v rms v 2 3kT / m 1.73 kT / m

PROBLEM 15 At what temperature is the root-mean-square

speed of nitrogen molecules equal to the root-mean-square

speed of hydrogen molecules at 20.00C?

SOLUTION

higher temperature to have the same v rms .

2.4 The mean free path

Notion of the mean free path

A molecule moving through a gas

collides with other molecules in a random

fashion.

Between collisions, the molecules move with constant

speed along straight lines. The average distance between

collisions is called the mean free path.

The mean free path for a gas molecule

Consider N spherical molecules with radius r in a volume V.

Suppose only one molecule is moving.

When it collides with another molecule,

the distance between centers is 2r.

In a short time dt a molecule with speed v

travels a distance vdt ; during this time it

collides with any molecule that is in the

cylindrical volume of radius 2r and length vdt.

The volume of the cylinder : 4 r 2vdt

The number of the molecules with centers in this cylinder :

2 N

dN (4 r vdt )

V dN N

The number of collisions per unit time : (4 r 2v )

dt V

dN N

When all the molecules move at once : 2(4 r 2v )

dt V

The average time between collisions (the mean free time)

1 V

t mean

2 N 2(4 r 2

v )N

2(4 r v )

V

The mean free path (the average distance

traveled between collisions) is

V

vt mean

4 2 r 2N

kT

vt mean

4 2 r 2P

PROBLEM 16 Approximate the air around you as a

collection of nitrogen molecules, each of which has a diameter

of 2.00 10-10 m.

How far does a typical molecule move before it collides with

another molecule?

SOLUTION

Assume that the gas is ideal:

PROBLEM 17 A cubical cage 1.25 m on each side contains

2500 angry bees, each flying randomly at 1.10 m/s. We

can model these insects as spheres 1.50 cm in diameter. On

the average, (a) how far does a typical bee travel between

collisions,

(b) what is the average time between collisions,

and (c) how many collisions per second does a bee make?

SOLUTION

3. The Molar Specific Heats of an ldeal Gas

Constant volume: Q nCV T

CV : the molar specific heat at constant volume

Constant pressure:

Q nC P T

CP : the molar specific heat at constant pressure

First law of thermodynamics:

3

E int Q W nCV T 0 nR T

2

3

CV R E int nCV T

2

C : molar specific heat of Various Gases

Gas constant: R = 8.315 J/mol.K

3

CV R

2

5

CV R

2

7

CV R

2

C : molar specific heat of Various Gases

3

monatomic molecules: CV R

2

diatomic molecules: 5

CV R

(not vibration) 2

7

polyatomic molecules: CV R

2

coordinates to specify the motion of a molecule)

f

CV R

2

Relating Cp and Cv for an Ideal Gas

If the heat capacity is measured under constant- volume

conditions: the molar heat capacity CV at constant volume

dQ nCV dT

V = const dW = 0

First law dU = dQ = nCVdT

By definition : dQ nC P dT

dW PdV nRdT

(Ideal gas : PV = nRT)

nCV dT nRdT

C P CV R

Work done by an ideal gas at constant temperature

The total work done by the gas as its volume changes from

Vf

V1 to Vf : W PdV

V

i

Vf

nRT

W dV

Vi V

Isothermal process: T const

Vf

dV Vf

W nRT ; W nRT ln

Vi V Vi

Also : PV

i i PfVf

Vf

W nRT ln

Vi

Pi

W nRT ln

Pf

Vf V i : W 0

When a system expands : work is positive.

When a system is compressed, its volume decreases and

it does negative work on its surroundings

Work done by an ideal gas at constant volume

Vf

W V PdV 0

i

Vf

W PdV 0 P (Vf V i ) P V

Vi

PROBLEM 18 A bubble of 5.00 mol of helium is submerged at

a certain depth in liquid water when the water (and thus the

helium) undergoes a temperature increase of 20.00C at

constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium

is monatomic and ideal.

a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the

increase and expansion?

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 18 A bubble of 5.00 mol of helium is submerged at

a certain depth in liquid water when the water (and thus the

helium) undergoes a temperature increase of 20.00C at

constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium

is monatomic and ideal.

a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the

increase and expansion?

(b) What is the change in the internal energy of the helium

during the temperature increase?

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 18 A bubble of 5.00 mol of helium is submerged at

a certain depth in liquid water when the water (and thus the

helium) undergoes a temperature increase of 20.00C at

constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium

is monatomic and ideal.

a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the

increase and expansion?

(b) What is the change in the internal energy of the helium

during the temperature increase?

(c) How much work is done by the helium as it expands

against the pressure of the surrounding water during the

temperature increase?

SOLUTION

4 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas

The Ratio of Heat Capacities

CP

Definition of the Ratio of Heat Capacities :

CV

between the gas and its surroundings: dQ = 0

dU = dQ dW = -dW

dU dQ dW dW ; nCV dT PdV

For ideal gas : PV nRT ; PdV VdP nRdT

R

PdV VdP PdV

CV

C CV

From : R = CP - CV : PdV VdP P PdV

CV

dV dP C P CV dV dV

Divide by PV : (1 )

V P CV V V

dP dV

0 ; ln P lnV const

P V

PV const PV

i i

P V

f f

PV const PV

i i P V

f f

nRT

V nRTV 1 const

V

PROBLEM 19 One mole of oxygen (assume it to be an ideal

gas) expands at a constant temperature of 310 K from an initial

volume 12 L to a final volume of 19 L.

a/ How much work is done by the gas during the expansion?

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 19 One mole of oxygen (assume it to be an ideal

gas) expands at a constant temperature of 310 K from an initial

volume 12 L to a final volume of 19 L.

a/ How much work is done by the gas during the expansion?

b/ What would be the final temperature if the gas had

expanded adiabatically to this same final volume? Oxygen

(O2 is diatomic and here has rotation but not oscillation.)

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 19 One mole of oxygen (assume it to be an ideal

gas) expands at a constant temperature of 310 K from an initial

volume 12 L to a final volume of 19 L.

a/ How much work is done by the gas during the expansion?

b/ What would be the final temperature if the gas had

expanded adiabatically to this same final volume? Oxygen

(O2 is diatomic and here has rotation but not oscillation.)

c/ What would be the final temperature and pressure if,

instead, the gas had expanded freely to the new volume,

from an initial pressure of.2.0 Pa?

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 20 Air at 20.0C in the cylinder of a diesel engine is

compressed from an initial pressure of 1.00 atm and volume

of 800.0 cm3 to a volume of 60.0 cm3. Assume that air

behaves as an ideal gas with = 1.40 and that the compression

is adiabatic. Find the final pressure and temperature of the air.

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 21 A typical dorm room or bedroom contains about

2500 moles of air. Find the change in the internal energy of this

much air when it is cooled from 23.9C to 11.6C at a constant

pressure of 1.00 atm.

Treat the air as an ideal gas with = 1.400.

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 22 The compression ratio of a diesel engine is 15 to

1; this means that air in the cylinders is compressed to 1/15 of

its initial volume (Fig). If the initial pressure is 1.01 105 Pa

and the initial temperature is 27C (300 K), (a) find the final

pressure and the temperature after compression. Air is mostly a

mixture of diatomic oxygen and nitrogen; treat it as an ideal

gas with = 1.40.

SOLUTION

(a)

PROBLEM 22 The compression ratio of a diesel engine is 15 to

1; this means that air in the cylinders is compressed to 1/15 of

its initial volume (Fig). If the initial pressure is 1.01 105 Pa

and the initial temperature is 27C (300 K),(b) how much work

does the gas do during the compression if the initial volume of

the cylinder is 1.00 L? Assume that CV for air is 20.8 J/mol.K

and = 1.40.

SOLUTION

(b)

PROBLEM 23 Two moles of carbon monoxide (CO) start at a

pressure of 1.2 atm and a volume of 30 liters. The gas is then

compressed adiabatically to 1/3 this volume. Assume that the

gas may be treated as ideal. What is the change in the internal

energy of the gas? Does the internal energy increase or

decrease? Does the temperature of the gas increase or

decrease during this process? Explain.

SOLUTION

PROBLEM 23 Two moles of carbon monoxide (CO) start at a

pressure of 1.2 atm and a volume of 30 liters. The gas is then

compressed adiabatically to 1/3 this volume. Assume that the

gas may be treated as ideal. What is the change in the internal

energy of the gas? Does the internal energy increase or

decrease? Does the temperature of the gas increase or

decrease during this process? Explain.

SOLUTION

(U > 0) and Q = 0.

The temperature increases because the internal energy has

increased.

PROBLEM 24 On a warm summer day, a large mass of air

(atmospheric pressure 1.01 105 Pa) is heated by the ground

to a temperature of 26.0C and then begins to rise through the

cooler surrounding air. (This can be treated as an adiabatic

process). Calculate the temperature of the air mass when it has

risen to a level at which atmospheric pressure is only 0.850

105 Pa. Assume that air is an ideal gas, with = 1.40.

SOLUTION

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