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PROGRAM OF PHYSICS

Lecturer: Dr. DO Xuan Hoi


Room 413
E-mail : dxhoi@hcmiu.edu.vn
PHYSICS 2
(FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS)
02 credits (30 periods)
Chapter 1 Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 2 Heat, Temperature and the Zeroth
Law of Thermodynamics
Chapter 3 Heat, Work and the First Law of
Thermodynamics
Chapter 4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
Chapter 5 Entropy and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics
References :
Halliday D., Resnick R. and Walker, J. (2005),
Fundamentals of Physics, Extended seventh edition.
John Willey and Sons, Inc.
Alonso M. and Finn E.J. (1992). Physics, Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company
Hecht, E. (2000). Physics. Calculus, Second Edition.
Brooks/Cole.
Faughn/Serway (2006), Serways College Physics,
Brooks/Cole.
Roger Muncaster (1994), A-Level Physics, Stanley
Thornes.
http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.htm
http://www.opensourcephysics.org/index.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/HFrame.html
http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Default.ht
ml
http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/
http://www.iop.org/index.html
.
.
.
CHAPTER 4
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
Ideal Gases, Experimental Laws and the Equation
of State
Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas The Equipartition
of Energy
The Boltzmann Distribution Law
The Distribution of Molecular Speeds
Mean Free Path
The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas
Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas
1. Ideal Gases, Experimental Laws and the
Equation of State
1.1 Notions
Properties of gases
A gas does not have a fixed volume or pressure
In a container, the gas expands to fill the container
Ideal gas
Collection of atoms or molecules that move randomly
Molecules exert no long-range force on one another
Molecules occupy a negligible fraction of the
volume of their container
Most gases at room temperature
and pressure behave approximately
as an ideal gas
1.2 Moles

Its convenient to express the amount of gas in a


given volume in terms of the number of moles, n

mass
n
molar mass

One mole is the amount of the substance that


contains as many particles as there are atoms in
12 g of carbon-12
1.3 Avogadros Hypothesis
Equal volumes of gas at the same temperature and
pressure contain the same numbers of molecules
Corollary: At standard temperature and pressure, one
mole quantities of all gases contain the same number of
molecules
This number is called NA
Can also look at the total number of particles: N nN A

The number of particles in a mole is called


Avogadros Number
NA=6.02 x 1023 particles / mole
The mass of an individual atom :
molar mass
matom
NA
PROBLEM 1 The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost
pure carbon and the Rosser Reeves (138 carats) is primarily
aluminum oxide (Al2O3). One carat is equivalent to a mass of
0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the
Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the
ruby Rosser Reeves.
SOLUTION
(a) The mass of the Hope diamond :
mHope (44.8 carats )(0.200 g / carat ) 8.90 g
The number of moles in the Hope diamond :
mHope 8.90 g
nHope 0.741 mol
mass per mole 12.011 g / mol
The number of carbon atoms in the Hope diamond :
N H (0.741 mol )N A
(0.741 mol )(6.022 1023 atoms / mol ) 4.46 1023 atoms
PROBLEM 1 The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost
pure carbon and the Rosser Reeves (138 carats) is primarily
aluminum oxide (Al2O3). One carat is equivalent to a mass of
0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the
Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the
ruby Rosser Reeves.
SOLUTION
(b) The mass of the Rosser Reeves :
mR (138 carats )(0.200 g / carat ) 27.6 g
Molecular mass :
mR 2(26.9815 u ) 3(15.9994 u ) 101.9612 u 101.9612 g / mol
The number of moles in the Rosser Reeves :
mR 27.6 g
nR 0.271 mol
mass per mole 101.9612 g / mol
PROBLEM 1 The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost
pure carbon and the Rosser Reeves (138 carats) is primarily
aluminum oxide (Al2O3). One carat is equivalent to a mass of
0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the
Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al2O3 molecules in the
ruby Rosser Reeves.
SOLUTION
(b)

The number of Al2O3 molecules in the Rosser Reeves :


N R (0.271 mol )N A
(0.271 mol )(6.022 1023 atoms / mol ) 1.63 1023 molecules
1.4 Experimental Laws
Boyles Law

Experiment :

Conclusion :
When the gas is kept at a constant
temperature, its pressure is
inversely proportional to its volume
(Boyles law)
PV const
Charles Law
Experiment :

Conclusion :
At a constant pressure, the
temperature is directly proportional
to the volume
(Charles law)
V CT
( C : constant )
Gay-Lussacs Law
Experiment :

Conclusion :
At a constant volume, the temperature
is directly proportional to the pressure
(Gay-Lussac law)
T CP
( C : constant )
1.5 Equation of State for an Ideal Gas
Boyles law : T = const PV const
Gay-Lussac law : V = constant T CP

Charles law : P = const V CT

The number of moles n of a substance of mass m (g) :


m
n (M : molar mass-g/mol)
M
Equation of state for an ideal gas :
PV = nRT (Ideal gas law)
T : absolute temperature in kelvins
R : a universal constant that is the same for all gases
R =8.315 J/mol.K
PV
R
nT
Definition of an Ideal Gas :
An ideal gas is one for which PV/nT is constant at
all pressures
Total number of molecules : N nN A
N
PV = RT = R nT
NA NA
With Boltzmanns constant :
R 8.315 J / mol .K
kB = = 1.38 10 23
J /K
N A 6.22 10 mol
23 1

Ideal gas law : PV = Nk BT


Ideal gas law for an quantity of gas: PV = CT
Test
An ideal gas is confined to a container with constant
volume. The number of moles is constant. By what
factor will the pressure change if the absolute
temperature triples?

a. 1/9
b. 1/3
c. 3.0
d. 9.0
PROBLEM 2 An ideal gas occupies a volume of 100cm3
at 20C and 100 Pa.
(a) Find the number of moles of gas in the container
(b) How many molecules are in the container?

SOLUTION
(a) The number of moles of gas :
PV (100 Pa )(104 m 3 )
n 4.10 106 mol
RT (8.315 J / mol )(293 K )
(b)The number molecules in the container :
N (4.10 10 6 mol )N A
(4.10 10 6 mol )(6.022 1023 atoms / mol )
2.47 1018 molecules
PROBLEM 3 A certain scuba tank is designed to hold 66 ft3
of air when it is at atmospheric pressure at 22C. When this
volume of air is compressed to an absolute pressure of
3 000 lb/in.2 and stored in a 10-L (0.35-ft3) tank, the air
becomes so hot that the tank must be allowed to cool before it
can be used.
(a) If the air does not cool, what is its temperature? (Assume
that the air behaves like an ideal gas.)

SCUBA (Self-Contained Underwater


Breathing Apparatus)
(a) The number of moles n remains constant :
PV PV PV
nR 1 1
2 2
; T 2 2 2 T1
T1 T2 PV1 1

(3000 lb / in .2 )(0.35 ft 3 )
(295 K ) 319 K
(14.7 lb / in . )(66 ft )
2 3
PROBLEM 3 A certain scuba tank is designed to hold 66 ft3
of air when it is at atmospheric pressure at 22C. When this
volume of air is compressed to an absolute pressure of
3 000 lb/in.2 and stored in a 10-L (0.35-ft3) tank, the air
becomes so hot that the tank must be allowed to cool before it
can be used.
(b) What is the air temperature in degrees Celsius and in
degrees Fahrenheit?
(b) 45.9C; 115F.
PROBLEM 4 A sculpa consists of a 0.0150 m3 tank filled
with compressed air at a pressure of 2.02107 Pa. Assume that
air is consumed at a rate of 0.0300 m3 per minute and that the
temperature is the same at all depths, determine how long the
diver can stay under seawater at a depth of
(a) 10.0 m and (b) 30.0 m
The density of seawater is = 1025 kg/m3.
SOLUTION
(a) P2 P1 gh
1.01 105 Pa (1025 kg / m 3 )(9.80 m / s 2 )(10.0 m )
2.01 105 Pa
PV (2.02 10 5
Pa )(0.0150 m 3
)
V2 1 1
1.51 m 3
P2 (1.01 105 Pa )
The volume available for breathing :
1.51 m 3 0.0150 m 3 1.50 m 3
PROBLEM 4 A sculpa consists of a 0.0150 m3 tank filled
with compressed air at a pressure of 2.02107 Pa. Assume that
air is consumed at a rate of 0.0300 m3 per minute and that the
temperature is the same at all depths, determine how long the
diver can stay under seawater at a depth of
(a) 10.0 m and (b) 30.0 m
The density of seawater is = 1025 kg/m3.
SOLUTION
(a) The compressed air will last for :
1.50 m 3
t 50.0 min
0.0300 m / min
3

(b) t 24.6 min


The deeper dive must have a shorter duration
PROBLEM 5 A spray can containing a propellant gas at
twice atmospheric pressure (202 kPa) and having a volume of
125 cm3 is at 22C. It is then tossed into an open fire. When
the temperature of the gas in the can reaches 195C, what is
the pressure inside the can? Assume any change in the volume
of the can is negligible.

SOLUTION
The number of moles n remains constant :
PV PV
nR 1 1
2 2
T1 T2
Because the initial and final volumes
of the gas are assumed to be equal :
P1 P2 T2 (468 K )
; P2 P1 (202 kPa ) 320 kPa
T1 T 2 T1 (295 K )
PROBLEM 6 An ideal gas at 20.0OC at a pressure of 1.50
105 Pa when has a number of moles of 6.1610-2 mol.
(a) Find the volume of the gas.

SOLUTION
(a) The volume :
nRT (6.16 102 mol )(8.315 J / mol )(293 K )
V
P (1.50 105 Pa )
1.00 103 m 3 1.00 L
PROBLEM 6 An ideal gas at 20.0OC at a pressure of 1.50
105 Pa when has a number of moles of 6.1610-2 mol.
(b) The gas expands to twice its original volume, while the
pressure falls to atmospheric pressure. Find the final
temperature.

SOLUTION
(a) The volume :
nRT (6.16 102 mol )(8.315 J / mol )(293 K )
V
P (1.50 105 Pa )
1.00 103 m 3 1.00 L
(b) n R PV
1 1 PV
2 2 ;
T1 T2
PV (1.01 105 Pa )(2.00 L )
T2 2 2
T1 (293 K ) 395 K
PV1 1 (1.50 10 Pa )(1.00 L )
5
PROBLEM 7 A beachcomber finds a corked bottle
containing a message. The air in the bottle is at the
atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 30.0OC. The cork
has the cross-sectional area of 2.30 cm3. The beachcomber
places the bottle over a fire, figuring the increased pressure
will pushout the cork. At a temperature of 99oC the cork is
ejected from the bottle
(a) What was the the pressure in the bottle just before the
cork left it ?

SOLUTION
(a) PV PV
nR 1 1
2 1 ;
T1 T2
T2 (372 K )
P2 P1 (1.01 105 Pa ) 1.24 105 Pa
T1 (303 K )
Message in a bottle found 24 years later - Yahoo!7
PROBLEM 7 A beachcomber finds a corked bottle
containing a message. The air in the bottle is at the
atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 30.0OC. The cork
has the cross-sectional area of 2.30 cm3. The beachcomber
places the bottle over a fire, figuring the increased pressure
will pushout the cork. At a temperature of 99oC the cork is
ejected from the bottle
(b) What force of friction held the cork in place?

SOLUTION
(b) F 0 ; Pin A Pout A Ffric 1 0
Ffric (Pin Pout )A
(1.24 105 Pa 1.01 105 Pa )(2.30 104 m 2 )
5.29 N
PROBLEM 8 A room of volume 60.0 m3 contains air having
an equivalent molar mass of 29.0 g/mol. If the temperature of
the room is raised from 17.0C to 37.0C, what mass of air (in
kilograms) will leave the room? Assume that the air pressure in
the room is maintained at 101 kPa.
SOLUTION
m
PV n RT RT

PV 1 1
m1 m2
R T1 T 2
(29.0 10 3 kg / mol )(1.01 105 Pa ) 60.0 m 3 1 1

(8.31 J / mol .K ) 290 K 310 K
4.70 kg
2 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
2.1 Assumptions of the molecular model of an ideal gas

A container with volume V contains a very large number N of


identical molecules, each with mass m.
The molecules behave as point particles; their size is small in
comparison to the average distance between particles and to the
dimensions of the container.
The molecules are in constant
motion; they obey Newton's
laws of motion. Each molecule
Brownian
collides occasionally with a wall of motion
the container. These collisions are
perfectly elastic. A particle
having a
The container walls are perfectly brownian
motion inside
rigid and infinitely massive and do
a polymer like
not move. network
2.2 Collisions and Gas Pressure
Consider a cubical box with sides of length d
containing an ideal gas. The molecule shown
moves with velocity v.
Consider the collision of one molecule moving
with a velocity v toward the right-hand face of
the box
Elastic collision with the wall Its x component
of momentum is reversed, while its y component
remains unchanged : p x mv x (mv x ) 2mv x
The average force exerted on the molecule :
2mv x 2mv x mv x2
F1
t 2d / v x d
The average force exerted by the molecule on the wall :
mv x2 mv x2
F1
d d
The total force F exerted by all the
molecules on the wall :
m
F v x21 v x2 2 ...
d
The average value of the square of the
velocity in the x direction for N molecules :
v 2
v 2
... v 2
v x2 x 1 x 2 xN
N
Nm 2
F vx
d
N mv 2
v 2 v x2 v y2 v z2 ; v 2 v x2 v y2 v z2 ; v 2 3v x2 ; F
3 d
The total pressure exerted on the wall:

F F 1 N 2 1 N 2 N 1 2
P 2 3 mv mv 2
; P mv
A d 3 d 3 V 3 V 2

2 N 1
P mv 2
3 V 2
The equation of state for an ideal gas : PV NkT
2 1 2
T 2 mv
3k
Temperature is a direct measure of average molecular
kinetic energy 1 3
mv kT
2

2 2
3
The average translational kinetic energy per molecule is kT
2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
v x2 v 2 mv x kT ; mv y kT ; mv z kT
2 2 2

3 2 2 2 2 2 2
Each degree of freedom contributes to the energy of a
system: 1 kT
2
(the theorem of equipartition of energy)
1 3
mv 2 kT
2 2
The total translational kinetic energy of N molecules of gas

1 3 3
E trans N mv 2 NkT nRT
2 2 2
N
n : The number of moles of gas
NA
R
k : Boltzmanns constant
NA
Assume: Ideal gas is a monatomic gas (which has
individual atoms rather than molecules: helium, neon, or
argon) and the internal energy Eint of ideal gas is simply the
sum of the translational kinetic energies of its atoms
3 3
E int E trans NkT nRT
2 2
The root-mean-square (rms) speed of the molecules :
v rms v 2

1
mv rms
2 1 3
mv 2 k BT ;
3kT 3RT
2 2 2
v rms
m M
M is the molar mass in kilograms per mole : M = mNA
PROBLEM 9 Five gas molecules chosen at random are
found to have speeds of 500, 600,700, 800, and 900 m/s.
Find the rms speed. Is it the same as the average speed?

SOLUTION

In general, vrms and vav are not the same.


PROBLEM 10 A tank used for filling helium balloons has a
volume of 0.300 m3 and contains 2.00 mol of helium gas at
20.0C. Assuming that the helium behaves like an ideal gas,
(a) what is the total translational kinetic energy of the
molecules of the gas?
SOLUTION
(a)
PROBLEM 10 A tank used for filling helium balloons has a
volume of 0.300 m3 and contains 2.00 mol of helium gas at
20.0C. Assuming that the helium behaves like an ideal gas,
(b) What is the average kinetic energy per molecule?
(c) Using the fact that the molar mass of helium is
4.00103 kg/mol, determine the rms speed of the atoms
at 20.0C.
SOLUTION
(b)

(c)
PROBLEM 11 (a) What is the average translational kinetic
energy of a molecule of an ideal gas at a temperature of
27C ?
(b) What is the total random translational kinetic energy of
the molecules in 1 mole of this gas?
(c) What is the root-mean-square speed of oxygen molecules
at this temperature ?

SOLUTION
(a)

(b)
PROBLEM 11 (a) What is the average translational kinetic
energy of a molecule of an ideal gas at a temperature of
27C ?
(b) What is the total random translational kinetic energy of
the molecules in 1 mole of this gas?
(c) What is the root-mean-square speed of oxygen molecules
at this temperature ?

SOLUTION
(c)
PROBLEM 12 (a) A deuteron, 21H, is the nucleus of a
hydrogen isotope and consists of one proton and one
neutron. The plasma of deuterons in a nuclear fusion reactor
must be heated to about 300 million K. What is the rms
speed of the deuterons? Is this a significant fraction of the
speed of light (c = 3.0 x 108 m/s) ?
(b) What would the temperature of the plasma be if the
deuterons had an rms speed equal to 0.10c ?

SOLUTION
2.3 The Boltzmann Distribution Law
The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function
Law of Exponential Atmospheres
Consider the distribution of molecules in our atmosphere :
Determine how the number of molecules per unit volume
varies with altitude
Consider an atmospheric layer of
thickness dy and cross-sectional area
A, having N particles. The air is in
static equilibrium :

PA (P dP )A mgN mgnVV mgnV Ady


dP mgnV dy where nV is the number density.
From the equation of state : PV Nk BT ; P nV k BT ; dP k BTdnV
nV y
dnV mg dnV mg
mgnV dy k BTdnV ;
nV

k BT
dy ; nV

k BT dy ;
n0 0
nV y
dnV mg nV mg y
dy ; ln nV n y 0
nV k BT 0 k BT
n0 0

mg nV mg nV mg
ln nV ln n0 y ; ln y ; exp y
k BT n0 k BT n0 k BT
nV mg nV mg
ln y ; exp y
n0 k BT n0 k BT

nV n0e mgy /kBT


U / k BT
nV n0e

The Boltzmann distribution law : the probability of


finding the molecules in a particular energy state varies
exponentially as the negative of the energy divided by kBT.
PROBLEM 13 What is the number density of air at an
altitude of 11.0 km (the cruising altitude of a commercial
jetliner) compared with its number density at sea level?
Assume that the air temperature at this height is the same as
that at the ground, 20C.

SOLUTION
The Boltzmann distribution law : nV n0e mgy /kBT
Assume an average molecular mass of :
28.9 u 4.80 1026 kg
The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function
Density of the number of molecules with speeds between v
and dv :
mv 2 /2kT mv 2 /2kT
NV (v )dV e dV e v 2dv sin d d
2
NV (v )dv e mv /2kT
2
v 2dv sin d d
0 0
mv 2 /2kT
NV (v )dv 4 e v 2dv
mv 2 /2kT
NV (v )dv A 4 e v 2dv
With : NV (v )dv N
mv /2kT 2
2

A 4 e v dv N
Poisson's Integral Formula:

ax 2 1
e dx
2 a
0

Density of the number of molecules with speeds between v


and dv is
3/2
m 2 mv 2 / 2kT
NV 4 N v e
2 kT
Density of the number of molecules with speeds between v
and dv is
3/2
m 2 mv 2 / 2kT
NV 4 N v e
2 kT

The rms speed :

v rms v 2 3kT / m 1.73 kT / m

The average speed:


v 8kT / m 1.60 kT / m
The most probable speed:
v mp 2kT / m 1.41 kT / m
v rms v v mp
PROOF: Definition: The average value of v n :

1
vn n
Nv dv
v
N 0
The average speed:
1
m
3/2
2 mv 2 /2kT
v v 4 N 2 kT v e dv
N 0

v 8kT / m 1.60 kT / m
The mean square speed:

1
m
3/2
2 mv 2 /2kT
v v 4 N
2 2
2 kT v e dv 3kT / m
N 0

v rms v 2 3kT / m 1.73 kT / m
The most probable speed:
dNv d m
3/2

0; 4 N
2 mv 2 /2kT
v e 0 ; v mp 2kT / m
dv dv 2 kT

PROBLEM 14 For diatomic carbon dioxide gas ( CO2 , molar
mass 44.0 g/mol) at T = 300 K, calculate
(a) the most probable speed vmp;
(b) the average speed vav;
(c) the root-mean-square speed vrms.

SOLUTION
The rms speed : v rms v 2 3kT / m 1.73 kT / m

The average speed: v 8kT / m 1.60 kT / m

The most probable speed: v mp 2kT / m 1.41 kT / m


PROBLEM 15 At what temperature is the root-mean-square
speed of nitrogen molecules equal to the root-mean-square
speed of hydrogen molecules at 20.00C?

SOLUTION

The rms speed : v rms v 2 3kT / m

A N2 molecule has more mass so N2 gas must be at a


higher temperature to have the same v rms .
2.4 The mean free path
Notion of the mean free path
A molecule moving through a gas
collides with other molecules in a random
fashion.
Between collisions, the molecules move with constant
speed along straight lines. The average distance between
collisions is called the mean free path.
The mean free path for a gas molecule
Consider N spherical molecules with radius r in a volume V.
Suppose only one molecule is moving.
When it collides with another molecule,
the distance between centers is 2r.
In a short time dt a molecule with speed v
travels a distance vdt ; during this time it
collides with any molecule that is in the
cylindrical volume of radius 2r and length vdt.
The volume of the cylinder : 4 r 2vdt
The number of the molecules with centers in this cylinder :
2 N
dN (4 r vdt )
V dN N
The number of collisions per unit time : (4 r 2v )
dt V
dN N
When all the molecules move at once : 2(4 r 2v )
dt V
The average time between collisions (the mean free time)
1 V
t mean
2 N 2(4 r 2
v )N
2(4 r v )
V
The mean free path (the average distance
traveled between collisions) is

V
vt mean
4 2 r 2N

For the ideal-gas : PV NkT

kT
vt mean
4 2 r 2P
PROBLEM 16 Approximate the air around you as a
collection of nitrogen molecules, each of which has a diameter
of 2.00 10-10 m.
How far does a typical molecule move before it collides with
another molecule?

SOLUTION
Assume that the gas is ideal:

The mean free path:


PROBLEM 17 A cubical cage 1.25 m on each side contains
2500 angry bees, each flying randomly at 1.10 m/s. We
can model these insects as spheres 1.50 cm in diameter. On
the average, (a) how far does a typical bee travel between
collisions,
(b) what is the average time between collisions,
and (c) how many collisions per second does a bee make?

SOLUTION
3. The Molar Specific Heats of an ldeal Gas
Constant volume: Q nCV T
CV : the molar specific heat at constant volume
Constant pressure:
Q nC P T
CP : the molar specific heat at constant pressure
First law of thermodynamics:
3
E int Q W nCV T 0 nR T
2
3
CV R E int nCV T
2
C : molar specific heat of Various Gases
Gas constant: R = 8.315 J/mol.K

3
CV R
2

5
CV R
2

7
CV R
2
C : molar specific heat of Various Gases
3
monatomic molecules: CV R
2
diatomic molecules: 5
CV R
(not vibration) 2
7
polyatomic molecules: CV R
2

f : degree of freedom (the number of independent


coordinates to specify the motion of a molecule)
f
CV R
2
Relating Cp and Cv for an Ideal Gas
If the heat capacity is measured under constant- volume
conditions: the molar heat capacity CV at constant volume
dQ nCV dT
V = const dW = 0
First law dU = dQ = nCVdT
By definition : dQ nC P dT
dW PdV nRdT
(Ideal gas : PV = nRT)

First law : dQ = dU + dW nC P dT dU nRdT


nCV dT nRdT
C P CV R
Work done by an ideal gas at constant temperature
The total work done by the gas as its volume changes from
Vf
V1 to Vf : W PdV
V
i

Ideal gas : PV nRT


Vf
nRT
W dV
Vi V
Isothermal process: T const
Vf
dV Vf
W nRT ; W nRT ln
Vi V Vi
Also : PV
i i PfVf

Vf
W nRT ln
Vi

Pi
W nRT ln
Pf
Vf V i : W 0
When a system expands : work is positive.
When a system is compressed, its volume decreases and
it does negative work on its surroundings
Work done by an ideal gas at constant volume

Vf
W V PdV 0
i

Work done by an ideal gas at constant pressure


Vf
W PdV 0 P (Vf V i ) P V
Vi
PROBLEM 18 A bubble of 5.00 mol of helium is submerged at
a certain depth in liquid water when the water (and thus the
helium) undergoes a temperature increase of 20.00C at
constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium
is monatomic and ideal.
a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the
increase and expansion?

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 18 A bubble of 5.00 mol of helium is submerged at
a certain depth in liquid water when the water (and thus the
helium) undergoes a temperature increase of 20.00C at
constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium
is monatomic and ideal.
a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the
increase and expansion?
(b) What is the change in the internal energy of the helium
during the temperature increase?

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 18 A bubble of 5.00 mol of helium is submerged at
a certain depth in liquid water when the water (and thus the
helium) undergoes a temperature increase of 20.00C at
constant pressure. As a result, the bubble expands. The helium
is monatomic and ideal.
a) How much energy is added to the helium as heat during the
increase and expansion?
(b) What is the change in the internal energy of the helium
during the temperature increase?
(c) How much work is done by the helium as it expands
against the pressure of the surrounding water during the
temperature increase?
SOLUTION
4 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas
The Ratio of Heat Capacities
CP
Definition of the Ratio of Heat Capacities :
CV

For adiabatic process : no energy is transferred by heat


between the gas and its surroundings: dQ = 0
dU = dQ dW = -dW
dU dQ dW dW ; nCV dT PdV
For ideal gas : PV nRT ; PdV VdP nRdT
R
PdV VdP PdV
CV
C CV
From : R = CP - CV : PdV VdP P PdV
CV
dV dP C P CV dV dV
Divide by PV : (1 )
V P CV V V
dP dV
0 ; ln P lnV const
P V
PV const PV
i i

P V
f f


PV const PV
i i P V
f f

For ideal gas : PV nRT

nRT
V nRTV 1 const
V

TV 1 const TiVi 1 TfVf 1


PROBLEM 19 One mole of oxygen (assume it to be an ideal
gas) expands at a constant temperature of 310 K from an initial
volume 12 L to a final volume of 19 L.
a/ How much work is done by the gas during the expansion?

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 19 One mole of oxygen (assume it to be an ideal
gas) expands at a constant temperature of 310 K from an initial
volume 12 L to a final volume of 19 L.
a/ How much work is done by the gas during the expansion?
b/ What would be the final temperature if the gas had
expanded adiabatically to this same final volume? Oxygen
(O2 is diatomic and here has rotation but not oscillation.)

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 19 One mole of oxygen (assume it to be an ideal
gas) expands at a constant temperature of 310 K from an initial
volume 12 L to a final volume of 19 L.
a/ How much work is done by the gas during the expansion?
b/ What would be the final temperature if the gas had
expanded adiabatically to this same final volume? Oxygen
(O2 is diatomic and here has rotation but not oscillation.)
c/ What would be the final temperature and pressure if,
instead, the gas had expanded freely to the new volume,
from an initial pressure of.2.0 Pa?

SOLUTION

The temperature does not change in a free expansion:


PROBLEM 20 Air at 20.0C in the cylinder of a diesel engine is
compressed from an initial pressure of 1.00 atm and volume
of 800.0 cm3 to a volume of 60.0 cm3. Assume that air
behaves as an ideal gas with = 1.40 and that the compression
is adiabatic. Find the final pressure and temperature of the air.

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 21 A typical dorm room or bedroom contains about
2500 moles of air. Find the change in the internal energy of this
much air when it is cooled from 23.9C to 11.6C at a constant
pressure of 1.00 atm.
Treat the air as an ideal gas with = 1.400.

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 22 The compression ratio of a diesel engine is 15 to
1; this means that air in the cylinders is compressed to 1/15 of
its initial volume (Fig). If the initial pressure is 1.01 105 Pa
and the initial temperature is 27C (300 K), (a) find the final
pressure and the temperature after compression. Air is mostly a
mixture of diatomic oxygen and nitrogen; treat it as an ideal
gas with = 1.40.

SOLUTION
(a)
PROBLEM 22 The compression ratio of a diesel engine is 15 to
1; this means that air in the cylinders is compressed to 1/15 of
its initial volume (Fig). If the initial pressure is 1.01 105 Pa
and the initial temperature is 27C (300 K),(b) how much work
does the gas do during the compression if the initial volume of
the cylinder is 1.00 L? Assume that CV for air is 20.8 J/mol.K
and = 1.40.

SOLUTION
(b)
PROBLEM 23 Two moles of carbon monoxide (CO) start at a
pressure of 1.2 atm and a volume of 30 liters. The gas is then
compressed adiabatically to 1/3 this volume. Assume that the
gas may be treated as ideal. What is the change in the internal
energy of the gas? Does the internal energy increase or
decrease? Does the temperature of the gas increase or
decrease during this process? Explain.

SOLUTION
PROBLEM 23 Two moles of carbon monoxide (CO) start at a
pressure of 1.2 atm and a volume of 30 liters. The gas is then
compressed adiabatically to 1/3 this volume. Assume that the
gas may be treated as ideal. What is the change in the internal
energy of the gas? Does the internal energy increase or
decrease? Does the temperature of the gas increase or
decrease during this process? Explain.

SOLUTION

The internal energy increases because work is done on the gas


(U > 0) and Q = 0.
The temperature increases because the internal energy has
increased.
PROBLEM 24 On a warm summer day, a large mass of air
(atmospheric pressure 1.01 105 Pa) is heated by the ground
to a temperature of 26.0C and then begins to rise through the
cooler surrounding air. (This can be treated as an adiabatic
process). Calculate the temperature of the air mass when it has
risen to a level at which atmospheric pressure is only 0.850
105 Pa. Assume that air is an ideal gas, with = 1.40.

SOLUTION