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PROJECT ON SUMMER TRAINING

What is PLC?
A Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC) is an
industrial digital
computer which has been
used to control the
manufacturing processes,
such as assembly lines,
or robotic devices, or any
activity that requires high
reliability control and easy
to programming and
process fault diagnosis.
History of PLC

PLC was introduced in 1960.


DICK MORLEY was the father of PLC.
First successful PLC was Designed and
developed by MODICON.
(MODICON = Modular Digital Controller)
It is a machine with thousands of electronic
parts.
Definition of PLC

It stands for programmable logic controller. The logic controller is


a special digital computer device used for automation for
industrial control systems.
Block Diagram of PLC

POWER
Push buttons, SUPPLY Solenoids,
Contacts Contactors,
Limit switches, Alarms
Etc. Etc.
INPUT OUTPUT
PROCESSOR
MODULE MODULE
From To
SENSORS OTUPUT

PROGRAMMING
DEVICE
Input Device in Output Device in
PLC PLC

Push Button Motors


Proximity switches Solenoids
Photoelectric sensors Indicator lamps
Temperature sensors Resistive loads
Contactors
Pressure sensors

Photo
Push button Motor Lamp
Sensor
Programming
Language
of
PLC
MOST COMMON LANGUAGE
ENCOUNTERED IN PLC PROGRAMME
ARE:
1. LADDER LOGIC
2. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
3. SEQUENTIAL FUNCTION CHART
Examples of Hardware PLCs Control

Drive Motor

Pump
Light Bulb

CPU

Photo Sensor Robotic Hand Push Button


How PLCs work

Basis of a PLC function is continual scanning of a program. Scanning process has


three basic steps:
Step 1: Testing input status. First, a PLC checks each of the inputs with intention to see
which one of them has status ON or OFF.
Step 2: Program execution. Here a PLC executes a program, instruction by instruction.
Step 3: Check-up and correction of output status. Finally, a PLC checks up output
status and adjusts it as needed.
The components that make a PLC work can be divided into three core areas-
The Power Supply and Rack.
The Central Processing Unit(CPU).
The Input/Output(I/O) section.
1. Rack

The rack is the components that holds everything together.


The power supply plugs into the rack as well and supplies a
regulated DC power to the other modules that plug into the
rack. The most popular power supplies work with 120V AC or,
24V DC sources.
2. CPU

The brain of the whole PLC is CPU


module. This module typically lives in
the slot beside the power supply. The
CPU consists of a microprocessor,
memory chip and other integrated
circuits to control logic, monitoring
and communications.
3. Input/Output(I/O) section

I/O System: -
The I/O system provides the physical connection between the equipment and the
PLC.
Inputs: -
Input devices can consist of digital or analogue devices. A digital input card handles
discrete devices which give a signal that is either ON or OFF such as a push button, limit
switch, sensors, or selector switches.
Outputs: -
output devices can also consist of digital or analogue types. A digital output card
either turns a device ON or OFF such as lights, LEDs, small motors, and relays.
Elements of PLC

Normally Open Contact: -


Power only flows through a normally open contact when the
device assigned to the contact is in its ON state.

Normally Closed Contact: -


Power only flows through a normally closed contact when
the device assigned to the contact is in its OFF state.

Output Coil:-
When used with a hardwired output, this function is OFF until
the logic in the programme allows it to turn ON
Elements of PLC

Relay:-
A relay is a device that responds to a voltage change by
activating a switch. When the input is energized the coil. So it
close the circuit. When the input voltage taken the coil is
demagnetized and it opens the circuit.
Timer:-
Timers are typically used to introduce some delay in the
circuit. If we want something to be ON after certain time interval
even if the input is ON, this is done by using this timer.
Counter:-
A counter is set of some pre-set value and, when this value of
input pulse has been received, it will operates its contacts
Requirements in PLC

1. Programming terminal laptop or desktop PC.


2. Plc software. PLC manufacturers have their own specific
software and license key.
3. Communication cable for connection from PC to laptop.
4. Backup copy of the program (on CDROM, hard disk, flash
memory). If none, upload it from the PLC.
5. Documentation- (PLC manual, software manual, program,
drawings, sequence of operations manual).
Advantages of PLCs

Reliability
Flexibility in programming and reprogramming
Cost effective for controlling complex systems
Small physical size, shorter project time
High speed of operation
Reduce space
Energy saving
Disadvantages of PLCs

PLC devices are proprietary it means that part or


software of one manufacture can't be used in
combination with parts of another manufacturer.
Limited design an cost option.
Fixed circuit operations.
PLCs manufacturers offer only closed architectures.
Applications
In case of Automation PLC is the best option.
Few examples of industries where PLCs are used:
1. Robots manufacturing and control
2. Car park control
3. Train control station system
4. Food processing
5. Materials handling
6. Machine tools
7. Conveyer system etc.
Leading brands in PLC

American
1. Allen Bradley
2. Texas Instruments
3. General Electric
4. Cutter Hammer
5. Square D

European
1. Siemens
2. Klockner & Mouller
Group Members

Atanu Ari 26301614004

Joydeep Sanyal 26301614009

Kabitirtha Manna 26301614010

Sankar Prasad Mondal 26301614020

Ushnish Jana 26301614026