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Problem(1): Hundred unemployed people were found to arrive at

a one-person state employment office to obtain their


unemployment compensation cheque according to the following
frequency distribution.
Inter-arrival Frequency Service Time (min) Frequency
time(min)
2 10 2 10
3 20 3 20
4 40 4 40
5 20 5 20
6 10 6 10

The Govt. is interested in predicting the operating characteristics


of this one-person state employment office during a typical
operating day from 10.00a.m. to 11a.m. Use simulation to
determine the average waiting time and total time in the system,
and the maximum queue length.
Ans:
Step 1. Assignment of random numbers to the arrival times
Inter-arrival Frequency Probability Cumulative Random
time(min) probability number
2 10 0.10 0.10 00-09
3 20 0.20 0.30 10-29
4 40 0.40 0.70 30-69
5 20 0.20 0.90 70-89
6 10 0.10 1.00 90-99
Step 2. Assignment of random numbers to service times

Service Frequency Probability Cumulative Random


time(min) probability number
2 10 0.10 0.10 00-09
3 20 0.20 0.30 10-29
4 40 0.40 0.70 30-69
5 20 0.20 0.90 70-89
6 10 0.10 1.00 90-99
Step 3. Simulation work sheet
Service Waiting time of Time
Rand Int arr Arr Service Rand in Queue
S.N0.
No. time time starts No. Time Ends server people
Syste Length
m

1 17 3 10.03 10.03 90 6 10.09 3 - 6 -


2 86 5 10.08 10.09 59 4 10.13 - 1 5 1
3 84 5 10.13 10.13 95 6 10.19 - - 6 -
4 79 5 10.18 10.19 68 4 10.23 - 1 5 1
5 33 4 10.22 10.23 51 4 10.27 - 1 5 1
6 55 4 10.26 10.27 82 5 10.32 - 1 6 1
7 06 2 10.28 10.32 72 5 10.37 - 4 9 1
8 42 4 10.32 10.37 01 2 10.39 - 5 7 2
9 93 6 10.38 10.39 77 5 10.44 - 1 6 1
10 38 4 10.42 10.44 80 5 10.49 - 2 7 1
11 58 4 10.46 10.49 84 5 10.54 - 3 8 1
12 71 5 10.51 10.54 19 3 10.57 - 3 6 1
13 74 5 10.56 10.57 34 4 11.01 - 1 5 1
Step 4. To compute the required information from the simulation sheet

(i)Average waiting time of people before service


waiting time of the people
= -------------------------------- = 23/13 =1.77 minutes
Total number of arrivals

(ii) Average queue length


total number of people in the queue
= -----------------------------------------------
total number of arrivals

(iii) Average time the person spends in the system


= Average service time + Average waiting time before the service
=4.46 + 1.77 = 6.23 minutes.
Problem(2): Records of 100 truck loads of finished jobs arriving in a
departments check-out area show the following: Checking out
takes 5 minutes and checker takes care of only one truck at a time.
The data is summarized in the following table:

Truck inter-arrival
time(min): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
frequency: 1 4 7 17 31 23 7 5 3 2

As soon as the trucks are checked out, the truck drivers take them
to the next departments. Using Monte-Carlo simulation, determine
(a) What is the average waiting time before service
(b) What is likely to be the longest wait?
Ans: From the given distribution of truck arriving times, we construct a cumulative
probability distribution, as shown in the following table. This table enable us to select
the range of random numbers for which we shall choose a prescribed value of time.

Period Frequency Probability Cumulative Random


(length=1 min) Probability numbers
1 1 0.01 0.01 0
2 4 0.04 0.05 1-4
3 7 0.07 0.12 5-11
4 17 0.17 0.29 12-28
5 31 0.31 0.60 29-59
6 23 0.23 0.83 60-82
7 7 0.07 0.90 83-89
8 5 0.05 0.95 90-94
9 3 0.03 0.98 95-97
10 2 0.02 1.00 98-99
The above table becomes the basis for generating arrival and service times. A simulation
work sheet can be prepared in the following way.
S. NO. Random Inter- Arrival Service Service Waiting time for
number arrival time begins ends
Time Checker Truck

1 12 4 10.04 10.04 10.09 4 -


2 81 6 10.10 10.10 10.15 1 -
3 36 5 10.15 10.15 10.20 - -
4 82 6 10.21 10.21 10.26 1 -
5 21 4 10.25 10.26 10.31 - 1
6 74 6 10.31 10.31 10.36 - -
7 90 8 10.39 10.39 10.44 3 -
8 55 5 10.44 10.44 10.49 - -
9 79 6 10.50 10.50 10.55 1 -
10 70 6 10.56 10.56 11.01 1 -
11 14 4 11.00 11.01 11.06 - 1
12 59 5 11.05 11.06 11.11 - 1
13 62 6 11.11 11.11 11.16 - -
14 57 5 11.16 11.16 11.21 - -
15 15 4 11.20 11.21 11.26 - 1
S. NO. Random Inter- Arrival Service Service Waiting time for
number arrival time begins ends Checker Truck
Time
16 18 4 11.24 11.26 11.31 - 2
17 74 6 11.30 11.31 11.36 - 1
18 11 3 11.33 11.36 11.41 - 3
19 41 5 11.38 11.41 11.46 - 3
20 29 5 11.43 11.46 11.51 - 3
After completing the simulation, following information can be
obtained which describe the behaviour of single server counter
as given below:

(i) Average waiting time of trucks before service


total waiting time
= -------------------------------- = 16/20 = 0.8 minutes
total number of arrivals
(ii) Expected longest period of waiting = 3 minutes
Problem(3): A firm has a single channel service station with the following arrival and
service time probability distributions:

Inter-arrival Probability Service time(min) Probability


time(min)
10 0.10 5 0.08
15 0.25 10 0.14
20 0.30 15 0.18
25 0.25 20 0.24
30 0.10 25 0.22
30 0.14
The customers arrival at the service station is a random phenomenon and the time
between the arrival varies from 10 min to 30 min. The queuing process begins at 10
a.m. and proceeds for nearly 8 hours. An arrival goes to the service facility immediately,
if it is free. Otherwise it will wait in a queue. The queue discipline is first come first
served.
If the attendants wages are Rs. 10 per hour and the customers waiting time
costs Rs. 15 per hour, then would it be an economical proposition to engage a second
attendant? Answer using Monte Carlo simulation technique.
Ans:
Step 1. Assignment of random numbers to the arrival times
Inter-arrival Probability Cumulative Random number
time(min) probability
10 0.10 0.10 00-09
15 0.25 0.35 10-34
20 0.30 0.65 35-64
25 0.25 0.90 65-89
30 0.10 1.00 90-99
Step 2. Assignment of random numbe0.30rs to service times

Service Probability Cumulative Random number


time(min) probability
5 0.08 0.08 00-07
10 0.14 0.22 08-21
15 0.18 0.40 22-39
20 0.24 0.64 40-63
25 0.22 0.86 64-85
30 0.14 1.00 86-99
Step 3. Simulation work sheet for 15 arrivals
Arrival Random Arrival Arrival Service Waiting Random Service Exit Time in
(1) number interval time time(5) time(6) number(7) time time(9) system(10)=(6
(2) (3) (4) begin End(8) )+(8)

1 20 15 15 15 0 26 15 30 15
2 73 25 40 40 0 43 20 60 20
3 30 15 55 60 5 98 30 90 35
4 99 30 85 90 5 87 30 120 35
5 66 25 110 120 10 58 20 140 30
6 83 25 135 140 5 90 30 170 35
7 32 15 150 170 20 84 25 195 45
8 75 25 175 195 20 60 20 215 40
9 04 10 185 215 30 08 10 225 40
10 15 15 200 225 25 50 20 245 45
11 29 15 215 245 30 37 15 260 45
12 62 20 235 260 25 42 20 280 45
13 37 20 255 280 25 28 15 295 40
14 68 25 280 295 15 84 25 320 40
15 94 30 310 320 10 65 25 345 35
From the 15 samples of waiting time, 225 minutes and
the time spent 545 minutes by the customer in the system,
we compute all average waiting time in the system and
average service time as follows:

Average waiting time = 225/15 = 15 minutes


Average service time = 545/14 = 36.33 minutes

Thus the average cost of waiting and service per hour is


given by
cost of waiting = 15 x (15/60) = Rs. 3.75
cost of service = 10 x (36.33/60) = Rs. 6.05

Since the average cost of service per hour is more than


the average cost of waiting per hour, therefore it would be an
economical proposition to engage a second attendant.
Problem(4): A sample of 100 arrivals of customers at a retail sales
deopt is according to the following distribution:

Time between arrivals (min) Frequency


0.5 2
1.0 6
1.5 10
2.0 25
2.5 20
3.0 14
3.5 4
4.0 7
4.5 4
5.0 2

A study of the time required to service customers by adding up the


bills, receiving payments and placing packages yields the following
distribution.
Time between service (min) Frequency
0.5 12
1.0 21
1.5 36
2.0 19
2.5 7
3.0 5

Estimate the average percentage customer waiting time and average


percentage idle time of the server by simulation for the next 10
arrivals.
Ans:Tag numbers are allocated to the events in the same
proportions as indicated by the probabilities.
Arrivals(min) Frequency Probability Cumulative Tag-numbers
probability
0.5 2 0.02 0.02 00-01
1.0 6 0.06 0.08 02-07
1.5 10 0.10 0.18 08-17
2.0 25 0.25 0.43 18-42
2.5 20 0.20 0.63 43-62
3.0 14 0.14 0.77 63-76
3.5 4 0.10 0.87 77-86
4.0 7 0.07 0.94 87-93
4.5 4 0.04 0.98 94-97
5.0 2 0.02 1.00 98-99
Service Frequency Probability Cumulative Tag-numbers
time(min) probability
0.5 12 0.12 0.12 00-11
1.0 21 0.21 0.33 12-32
1.5 36 0.36 0.69 33-68
2.0 19 0.19 0.88 69-87
2.5 7 0.07 0.95 88-94
3.0 5 0.05 1.00 95-97

The random numbers are generated and linked to the appropriate


events. The first 10 random numbers simulating arrival, the second
10 simulating service times. The results are incorporated into an
appropriate table on the assumption that the system starts at 0.00
a.m.
Arrival Random Inter- Arrival Random Service Service Waiting time of
No. No. arrival time No. Time
time (min) (min)
(min)
Start End Customer Server

1 93 4.0 4.0 78 2.0 4.0 6.0 - 4.0

2 22 2.0 6.0 76 2.0 6.0 8.0 - -

3 53 2.5 8.5 58 1.5 8.5 10.0 - 0.5

4 64 3.0 11.5 54 1.5 11.5 13.0 - 1.5

5 39 2.0 13.5 74 2.0 13.5 15.5 - 0.5

6 07 1.0 14.5 92 2.5 15.5 18.0 1.0 -

7 10 1.5 16.0 38 1.5 18.0 19.5 2.0 -

8 63 3.0 19.0 70 2.0 19.5 21.5 0.5 -

9 76 3.0 22.0 96 3.0 22.0 25.0 - 0.5

10 35 2.0 24.0 92 2.5 25.0 27.5 1.0 -

Total 4.5 7.0


(i) Average waiting time per customer is = 4.5/10=0.45 minutes
(ii) Average waiting time or idle time of the servers=7.0/10=0.7 min
Problem(5): An automobile production line turns out about 100
cars a day, but deviations occur owing to many causes. The
production is more accurately described by the probability
distribution given below:
Production/day Probability
95 0.03
96 0.05
97 0.07
98 0.10
99 0.15
100 0.20
101 0.15
102 0.10
103 0.07
104 0.05
105 0.03
Finished cars are transported across the bay at the end of each day by ferry, If
the ferry has space for only 101 cars, what will be the average number of cars
waiting to be shipped and what will be the average number of empty spaces
on the ship?
Ans: Production Probability Cumulative Tag numbers
/day Probability
95 0.03 0.03 00-02
96 0.05 0.08 03-07
97 0.07 0.15 08-14
98 0.10 0.25 15-24
99 0.15 0.40 25-39
100 0.20 0.60 40-59
101 0.15 0.75 60-74
102 0.10 0.85 75-84
103 0.07 0.92 85-91
104 0.05 0.97 92-96
105 0.03 1.00 97-99
The simulated production of cars for the next 15 days is given in the following table:
Day Random No. Prod. Per No. of cars waiting No. of empty spaces in
day the ship
1 97 105 4 -
2 02 95 - 6
3 80 102 1 -
4 66 101 - -
5 96 104 3 -
6 55 100 - 1
7 50 100 - 1
8 29 99 - 2
9 58 100 - 1
10 51 100 - 1
11 04 96 - 5
12 86 103 2 -
13 24 98 - 3
14 39 99 - 2
15 47 100 - 1
Total 10 23