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Adaptive PI Controller based

control of SPV for maintaining

Constant CPI Voltages
Solar photo Voltaic (SPV) systems based grid interfacing
systems involve two stage power conversions.
This conversion requires Maximum Power Point
Tracking (MPPT) based boost converter that can supply
a constant DC link voltage with a SPV as its input as the
first stage.
The second stage conversion involves a two-level
Voltage Source Converter (VSC) that serves as an
inverter which feed power from the boost converter to
the grid.
To meet the grid requirements the voltage at the
Common Point of Interconnection (CPI), the voltage of
the inverter must be made equal to the voltage of CPI.
Abstract Contd

This can be done adjusting DC link voltage of

stage one of the converter. This can be achieved
by using an adaptive feed forward Proportional
and integral Controller (PI).
The advantage of this controller is that it
improves dynamic response, reduces the
switching losses and provides robust response
under grid voltage variations.
The performance of the system is verified with
the help of MATLAB based simulation studies and
the case studies are presented.
Photovoltaic (PV) generation technology has
been developed rapidly these several years.
The trend of fast increase of the PV energy use
is related to the increasing efficiency of solar
cells as well as the improvements of
manufacturing technology of PV panels.
The PV generation system can either be grid
connected or can be in stand-alone systems.
The main benefit of solar energy is that it can be
easily deployed by both home and business users
as it does not require any huge set-up as in case
of wind and geothermal power stations.
Apart from the stand-alone systems, grid-
connected PV systems have gained more
importance because of the rising energy demand.
In small power systems, frequency can also be
adversely affected by sudden changes in PV
Battery energy storage systems (BESS), whether
centrally located at the substation or distributed
along a feeder, can provide power quickly in such
scenarios to minimize customer interruptions
Classification of solar Energy Systems
Standalone Systems
Grid Interface systems
Standalone Systems
Standalone systems require energy storage
Battery is the key component of standalone
Different problems may araise due to these
battery storage systems.
This makes the grid interfaced systems more
preferable in case of grid connected systems.
Grid Interface Systems
The interface system with Solar Photovoltaic
systems consists two stages.
A DC DC Converter is used in first stage.
A grid connected Voltage Source Converter is
used in second Stage.
First Stage of grid interface systems
A DC DC Converter is used in the first stage.
This converter is controlled with the help of
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
A Boost Converter is used to step up the low
dc voltage of SPV.
The output of the boost converter is
connected to DC link of VSC.
Second Stage of grid interface systems
The DC link voltage of VSC is dynamically adjusted
by grid tied VSC on the basis of CPI voltage.
The three phase VSC consists of three IGBT legs.
The output terminals of VSC are connected to
interfacing inductors and the other end of
interfacing inductors are connected to Common
Point Interface.
A ripple filter is also connected at CPI to absorb
high frequency switching ripples generated by the
System Configuration
Control of SPV
The Control of SPV is divided into two parts
Control of Boost Converter
Control of VSC
Block Diagram of Control Approach
Control of Boost Converter
The input voltage of a boost converter is
adjusted according to MPPT algorithm and the
output voltage of boost converter, which is
also the DC link voltage of VSC is also kept
adaptive according to CPI voltage condition.
Incremental Conductance based MPPT is used
to control boost converter.
MPPT algorithm is used
Control of VSC
The main objective of the control algorithm for
VSC is to regulate the DC link voltage to the set
reference value and to inject the extracted power
from PV array into the grid at unity power factor
with respect to CPI.
In order to control the output currents of VSC (or
grid currents), the appropriate reference grid
currents are estimated.
The DC link voltage of VSC should be greater than
amplitude of line voltage.
For proper current control the DC link voltage
must be higher than the amplitude of CPI line
Therefore, reference DC link voltage is kept
around 10% higher than the peak of CPI line
voltage, considering the drop across switches,
interfacing inductor, resistance of interfacing
inductor and proper current control under DC link
voltage dynamics.
A PI controller is used to maintain the DC link
voltage to reference DC link voltage.
The sensed DC link voltage is passed through a
low pass filter to suppress the switching noise.
The output of low pass filter is designated as
The difference between VDCref and VDC is the
input to the PI controller.
Simulation Model
MPPT Controller
DC Voltage Regulator
VSC Main Controller
Simulation Results
Voltage supplied by VSC
Currents supplied by VSC
Voltage of MPPT based PV Cell
Current of MPPT based PV Cell
Current through Diode of PV Cell
Voltages of Currents of grid
A two-stage system has been modeled for three-phase grid
connected solar PV generation.
A composite InC based MPPT algorithm is used for control
of the boost converter.
The performance of proposed system has been
demonstrated for wide range of CPI voltage variation.
A simple and novel adaptive DC link voltage control
approach has been proposed for control of grid tied VSC.
The DC link voltage is made adaptive with respect to CPI
voltage which helps in reduction of losses in the system.
Moreover, a PV array feed forward term is used which helps
in fast dynamic response.
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