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# HYPOTHESIS TESTING

WITH Z TESTS
Arlo Clark-Foos
Review: Standardization
Allows us to easily see how one score (or sample)
compares with all other scores (or a population).
Example: Jessica
Jessica is 15 years old and 66.41 in. tall
For 15 year old girls, = 63.8, = 2.66

z
X (66.41 63.8)
0.98
2.66
CDC Example: Jessica
1. Percentile: How many 15 year old girls are
shorter than Jessica?
50% + 33.65% = 83.65%
CDC Example: Jessica
2. What percentage of 15 year old girls are taller
than Jessica?
50% - 33.65% OR 100% - 83.65% = 16.35%
CDC Example: Manuel
Manuel is 15 years old and 61.2 in. tall
For 15 year old boys, = 67, = 3.19

z
X (61.2 67)
1.82
3.19

## Consult z table for 1.82 46.56%

CDC Example: Manuel
1. Percentile
Negative z, below mean: 50% - 46.56% = 3.44%
CDC Example: Manuel
2. Percent Above Manuel
100% - 3.44% = 96.56 %
Percentages to z Scores
SAT Example: = 500, = 100
You find out you are at 63rd percentile
Consult z table for 13%
THIS z Table lists the percentage
under the normal curve, between the
mean (center of distribution) and the z
statistic.

## 63rd Percentile = 63%

50% + 13%

z= ?_
Percentages to z Scores z
X

X z ( )
SAT Example: = 500, = 100
You find out you are at 63rd percentile
Consult z table for 13% z = .33
X = .33(100) + 500 = 533
Assumptions of Hypothesis Testing
Assumptions of Hypothesis Testing
1. The DV is measured on an interval scale
2. Participants are randomly selected
3. The distribution of the population is approximately
normal
Robust: These hyp. tests are those that produce fairly
accurate results even when the data suggest that the
population might not meet some of the assumptions.
Testing Hypotheses (Steps)
1. State Null Hypothesis
2. State Alternative Hypothesis
3. Set
4. Identify critical region
5. Construct rejection/acceptance region
6. Calculate test statistic
7. Based on step 5 and 6 make a conclusion
The z Test: An Example
In national use, a vocabulary test is known to have a
mean score of 68 and a standard deviation of 13.
A class of 19 students takes the test and has a
mean score of 65.
Is the class typical of others who have taken the
test? Assume a significance level of p < 0.05.
The z Test: An Example
1. State the null (H0) and
2. research (H1) hypotheses

H0 : = 68
H1 : 68
The z Test: An Example
3. Set alpha (a= 0.05)
4. Calculate test statistic

z
M M
M

M
n
The z Test: An Example
3. Set alpha (a= 0.05)
4. Calculate test statistic

13
M 2.98
n 19

z
M M (65 68)
1.006
M 2.98
The z Test: An Example
4. Determine critical value (cutoffs)
The z Test: An Example
4. Determine critical value (cutoffs)
The z Test: An Example
5. Calculate test statistic

z
M M (65 68)
1.006
M 2.98
6. Make a Decision
The z Test: An Example
5. Calculate test statistic

z
M M (65 68)
1.006
M 2.98
6. Make a Decision
Because 1.006 is between 1.96 and 1.96, the null
hypothesis of population mean is 68 and cannot be
rejected. That is, there is not evidence that this class can be
considered different from others who have taken the test.
Does sample size matter?
Increasing Sample Size
By increasing sample size, one can increase the
value of the test statistic, thus increasing probability
of finding a significant effect
Why Increasing Sample Size Matters

## Original Example: Psychology GRE scores

Population: = 554, = 99
Sample: M = 568, N = 90

99
M 10.436
N 90

z
M M (568 554)
1.34
M 10.436
Why Increasing Sample Size Matters

## New Example: Psychology GRE scores for N = 200

Population: = 554, = 99
Sample: M = 568, N = 200

99
M 7.00
N 200

z
M M (568 554)
2.00
M 7.00
Why Increasing Sample Size Matters

## = 554, = 99, M = 568 = 554, = 99, M = 568

N = 90 N = 200
99 99
M 10.436 M 7.00
N 90 N 200

z = 1.34 z = 2.00
zcritical (p=.05) = 1.96
Not significant, Significant,
fail to reject null reject null
hypothesis hypothesis
FINAL PROJECT
28

## Max 3 members per group

Select a barangay
Conduct a Survey about waste
characteristics (plastics, paper, etc)
Use descriptive statistics
Submit a formal written output
(sample to be uploaded in Edmodo)