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O2 Measurement with GM 302

Content of the presentation:

1 Measurement task, applications and application limits

2 Details to GM302 (Measurement principle and versions)

3 Positioning of the GM302 in the Division product line

4 Positioning of the GM302 in the market

5 Competitors

6 Highlights of the GM35

7 Application tool

Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Measuring task of the GM302

Measurement of O2

Main applications

Process monitoring

Emission monitoring

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application

Emission monitoring Measurement of the O2 for dilution


correction of other gas concentrations
(SO2, NO, NH3, NO2 ... )
=> oxygen reference value

Application details: Government requirements

Low dust

Low temperatur

Explosion proof not necessary mainly Kaitec

Korea

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application Emission Measurement


The O2measurement is necessary for the determination of the
limit value for the emitted pollutants.

Excess of air / oxygen dilutes the exhaust gas and this reduces the
concentrations of pollutants in the gas. The dilution effect should be
considered by the measurement of pollutants.

Their concentrations can be set into relation to the oxygen content of the gas
as follows:

21 % O2,ref
C(O2corr ) Cactual *
21 % O2,actual

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application Emission Measurement

Combustion processes need a certain excess of air / oxygen.


The needed excess of oxygen depends on the type of the plant and is
characteristic for each plant:
O2 reference value

Typical O2 reference values are:

Power stations (liquid/gaseous fuels) 3%


Power stations (solid fuels) 7%
Waste incineration plants 11 %
Gas turbines 15 %

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application

Process monitoring Combustion optimization

Application details:

High dust

High temperature

Explosion proof not required mainly

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application: Combustion optimization

Wherever fuel is burnt to generate heat, the efficiency of combustion is


important.

Combustion efficiency is a measure of how effectively the energy which


contained in a fuel is converted into heat.

The three fundamental process values are fuel, air and heat.

Oxygen analysers according to the zirconium principle are the most widely
used combustion control instruments.

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application: Combustion optimization

Certain excess air is required for a complete combustion. Therefore a

determined amount of air is required to burn a fuel completely and to

generate the highest output of heat.

The excess air for a combustion process is defined as follows:

= air(actual) / air(required) = air ratio

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application: Combustion optimization


Complete combustion means:
High efficiency
Less pollution's

Incomplete combustion means:


Less efficiency - lost heat
Increased output of Carbon monoxide - CO
Formation of soot and hydrocarbon - unburned CnHm
Caking on the boiler wall or water piping and therefore
higher operation and maintenance costs.

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application: Combustion optimization Combustion


Show
soot, CO, CH formation opt. Exhaust gas heat lost

soot limit


CO O2
= 1
Combustion optimization

= air ratio
CH
= air(actual) / air(required)

opt. = optimal fuel / air ratio

= efficiency
< 1 1,03 1,3
0,6 4,8 % O2

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Application Examples for emission and combustion optimization.

Power plants
Cement factories
Refinery, Chemical and Petrochemical plants
Pharmaceutical industry
Pulp and paper industry
Glass industry
Steel and aluminium industry
Waste incineration plants,
Timber industry
...........

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302
Application Examples - Power Plants

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #


O2 Measurement with GM 302

Limitations of Applications

Temperature max 1400 C

min stack diameter 500 mm

in case of high dust application sticky dust becomes problematic

1 Analyzers and Process Instrumentation Gas Analyzers In situ 12-02 #