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AERO2355 Systems Engineering 1

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Primary Functions of Aircraft Components

Horizontal tail
Vertical tail
Landing gear

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Functions of Wing
The main function of the wing is to generate the aerodynamic
force of lift to keep the aircraft airborne.

The wing tends to generate two other unwanted aerodynamic

productions: an aerodynamic drag force plus an
aerodynamic pitching moment.

Furthermore, the wing is an essential component in providing

the aircraft lateral stability, which is fundamentally
significant for flight safety.

In almost all aircraft, the aileron is arranged so as to be at the

trailing edge of the outboard section. Hence, the wing is
largely influential in providing the aircraft lateral control.

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Wind Configuration Alternatives

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Wing location
High wing
Aerodynamically high wing is superior to low wing
More lateral stability
Shorter landing distance
Can use external struts
Mid wing
Something in between
Low wing
More ground effect
Shorter take off distance
Easier to attach landing gear
Better roll manoeuvrability
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Number of Wings
Potential for a high roll rate
Increased weight
Increased drag
Low velocity

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Wing Type
Easiest to produce
Is much heavier then necessary
Better stall characteristics
Structurally efficient
Reduced drag
Reduced weight and increased aspect ratio
More efficient flight
Structurally and aerodynamically more efficient
Swept back
Adjusts centre of lift
Reduced drag
More lateral stability
Handle badly at or near stall
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Wing Setting

The wing incidence must satisfy the following design

1. The wing must be able to generate the desired lift coefficient during
cruising flight.
2. The wing must produce minimum drag during cruising flight.
3. The wing setting angle must be such that the wing angle of attack
could be safely varied (in fact increased) during take-off operation.
4. The wing setting angle must be such that the fuselage generates
minimum drag during cruising flight (i.e. the fuselage angle of
attack must be zero in cruise).
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Increased lateral stability

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Increase of wing efficiency

Reduced lift-induced drag
Improve handling characteristics
Increase effective aspect ratio WITHOUT increasing
Increase lift generated at wingtips
Increases range and power efficiency
Increases cross country speed in gliders

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Functions of Horisontal Tail
The horizontal tails primary function is to generate an
aerodynamic force to longitudinally trim the aircraft

Furthermore, the HT is an essential component is

providing the aircraft longitudinal stability, which is a
fundamental requirement for flight safety - STABILITY

In the majority of aircraft, the elevator is a movable part

of the horizontal tail, so longitudinal control and
maneuverability are applied through the horizontal tail.

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Trim Angle of

AERO2253 Aerospace Dynamics and Control

Functions of Vertical Tail
The VTs primary function is to generate an aerodynamic
force to directionally trim the aircraft.

Furthermore, the VT is an essential component in

providing the aircraft directional stability, which is a
fundamental requirement for flight safety.

In the majority of aircraft, the rudder is a movable part of

the VT, so directional control and maneuverability
are applied through the VT.

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AERO2253 Aerospace Dynamics and Control
Tail Configurations

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T-tail vs conventional tailplane

Possibility of problems during stall condition
Vertical tailplane has structurally support the horizontal
tailplane, thus increase of weight

Conventional Tailplane
Easy to design, manufacture and assemble

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Functions of Engine
The engine is the main component in the aircraft propulsion system to
generate power and/or thrust.

The aircraft requires a thrust force to move forward (as in any

other vehicle), so the engines primary function is to generate the thrust.

The fuel is considered to be a necessary item of the propulsion system

and it sometimes constitutes a large part of the aircraft weight.

An aircraft without an engine is not able to take off independently, but

is capable of gliding and landing, as performed by sailplanes and gliders.

Sailplanes and gliders take off with the help of other aircraft or outside
devices (such as a winch), and climb with the help of wind and thermal

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Tractor vs Pusher
Single propeller engine is
Aircraft needs to be optimized for
Do not forget size of propeller, if
you consider pusher need
propeller clearance behind the
fuselage during takeoff
Tractor configuration increase
amount of down force (BUT
increase drag as well)
Pusher configuration do not
increase drag, and illuminates
yawing moment

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Functions of Landing Gear
The primary function of the landing gear is to facilitate take-
off and landing operations.

During take-off and landing operations, the fuselage, wing,

tail, and aircraft components are kept away from the
ground through the landing gear.

The wheels of the landing gear in land-based and ship-based

aircraft also play a crucial role in safe acceleration and
deceleration of the aircraft.

Rolling wheels as part of the landing gear allow the aircraft to

accelerate without spending a considerable amount of thrust
to overcome friction.

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Landing Gear Configuration

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Tail gear vs. tricycle gear
Tail gear
Lager clearance for nose mounted propeller
Not feasible for pusher configuration
Less drag
Not stable during ground landing

Better controllability on the ground
Only option for pusher configuration

To reduce weight wheels can be replaced by skids!!!

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Control Surfaces

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