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# MANE 4240 & CIVL 4240

Prof. Suvranu De

Constant Strain
Triangle (CST)

Summary:

## Computation of shape functions for constant strain triangle

Properties of the shape functions
Computation of strain-displacement matrix
Computation of element stiffness matrix
Computation of nodal loads due to body forces
Computation of nodal loads due to traction
Recommendations for use
Example problems
Finite element formulation for 2D:

## Step 1: Divide the body into finite elements connected to each

other through special points (nodes)
py
3 v3
px
4 3
u3
v4 u 1
v 2 Element e v2 v
1 1
4 u 2
u ST u4
v1 2 u2
v 2
y d
x y u3
Su
u1 v 3
1
v
x x u 4
u v
4
u (x, y) N1(x, y) u 1 N 2 (x, y) u 2 N 3 (x, y) u 3 N 4 (x, y) u 4
v (x, y) N1(x, y) v1 N 2 (x, y) v 2 N 3 (x, y) v 3 N 4 (x, y) v 4

u 1
v
1
u 2

u (x, y) N 1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0 v 2
u
v (x, y) 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N 4 u 3
v 3

u 4
v
uNd 4
TASK 2: APPROXIMATE THE STRAIN and STRESS WITHIN
EACH ELEMENT

## u (x, y) N 1(x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 4 (x, y)

x u1 u2 u3 u4
x x x x x
v (x, y) N 1(x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 4 (x, y)
y v1 v2 v3 v4
y y y y y
u (x, y) v (x, y) N1(x, y) N1(x, y)
xy u1 v1 ......
y x y x
x

y
xy

u 1
v
N 1(x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 4 (x, y) 1
0 0 0 0 u 2
x x x x
N (x, y) N (x, y) N (x, y) N (x, y) v 2
0 1
0 2
0 3
0 4

y y y y u 3
N (x, y) N (x, y) N (x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 4 (x, y) N 4 (x, y) v
1 1 2
3
y x y x y x y x u
4
B v
4

Bd
Summary: For each element
Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions
uNd

## Strain approximation in terms of strain-displacement matrix

Bd
Stress approximation
DB d
Element stiffness matrix
k e B D B dV
T
V

f e N X dV e N T S dS
T T

V ST
f f
b S
Constant Strain Triangle (CST) : Simplest 2D finite element

v1
v3
1 u1
(x1,y1) (x3,y3)
v2 v u3
y u 3
(x,y)

u2
2 (x2,y2)

## 3 nodes per element

2 dofs per node (each node can move in x- and y- directions)
Hence 6 dofs per element
The displacement approximation in terms of shape functions is

u (x,y) N1u1 N 2 u 2 N 3u 3

v(x,y) N1v1 N 2 v 2 N 3 v 3
u1
v
1
u (x, y) N 1 0 N2 0 N3 0 u 2
u
v (x, y) 0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3 v 2
u 3

u 21 N 26 d 61 v 3

N1 0 N2 0 N3 0
N
0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3
Formula for the shape functions are
a1 b1 x c1 y
v1 N1
v3 2A
1 u1 a 2 b2 x c 2 y
(x1,y1) (x3,y3) N2
v2 v u3 2A
u 3 a3 b3 x c3 y
y (x,y) N3
2A
where u2
2 (x2,y2)

x
1 x 1 y1
1
A area of triangle det 1 x 2 y 2
2
1 x 3 y 3
a1 x 2 y 3 x3 y 2 b1 y 2 y 3 c1 x3 x 2
a 2 x3 y1 x1 y 3 b2 y 3 y1 c 2 x1 x3
a3 x1 y 2 x 2 y1 b3 y1 y 2 c3 x 2 x1
Properties of the shape functions:

## 1. The shape functions N1, N2 and N3 are linear functions of x

and y
N2
N1 N3
1
1 1
1 3 1
y 3 2 3

1
2 2

x
1 at node ' i '
Ni
0 at other nodes
2. At every point in the domain

N
i 1
i 1
3

N x
i 1
i i x
3

N y
i 1
i i y
3. Geometric interpretation of the shape functions
At any point P(x,y) that the shape functions are evaluated,

A1
N1
A
A2
N2
P (x,y)
A
1 A3
A2 N3
y
A3
A1 3 A

x
Approximation of the strains
u
x
x
y v
Bd
y
xy

u v

y x

## N1(x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y)

0 0 0
x x x
N1(x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y)
B 0 0 0
y y y
N (x, y) N (x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 2 (x, y) N 3 (x, y) N 3 (x, y)
1 1

y x y x y x
b1 0 b2 0 b3 0
1
0 c1 0 c 2 0 c3
2A
c1 b1 c 2 b2 c3 b3
Inside each element, all components of strain are constant: hence
the name Constant Strain Triangle

## Element stresses (constant inside each element)

DB d
IMPORTANT NOTE:
1. The displacement field is continuous across element
boundaries
2. The strains and stresses are NOT continuous across element
boundaries
Element stiffness matrix
t
k e B D B dV
T
V

Since B is constant
A

k B D B e dV B D B At
T T t=thickness of the element
V A=surface area of the element

f e N X dV e N T S dS
T T

V ST
f f
b S
Element nodal load vector due to body forces

f b e N X dV t e N X dA
T T
V A

t N X dA
b1x
f Ae
1 a

fb1y
fb3y f t e N1 X b dA
1 fb1x b1 y A
f b 2 x t e N 2 X a dA
Xb fb3x fb A
fb2y Xa
y (x,y)
3 f b 2 y t Ae N 2 X b dA
f b3 x
fb2x t Ae N 3 X a dA
2 f b 3 y
x
t Ae N 3 X b dA

EXAMPLE:

## If Xa=1 and Xb=0

t N X dA
f b1x Ae
1 a
tA
t e N 1 dA 3
f t e N1 X b dA A
b1 y A 0 0
f b 2 x t e N 2 X a dA t N dA tA
fb Ae 2 3
A

f b 2 y t Ae N 2 X b dA 0 0
f b3 x t N dA tA
t Ae N 3 X a dA Ae 3
f b 3 y 0 3
t Ae N 3 X b dA 0

Element nodal load vector due to traction

e N T S dS
T
f S ST

EXAMPLE:

fS1y
fS3y f t N
T
T S dS
1 S l1 3 e
along 13

fS1x fS3x
y 3

x
Element nodal load vector due to traction

EXAMPLE:

fS2y f S t
T
e
N T S dS
l 2 3 along 2 3
(2,2)
2 fS2x
y f S2 x t N 2 along 23 (1) dy 1
1
e
l23
TS
0 1 2
fS3y t 2 1 t
2
1 3 fS3x x
Similarly, compute
(0,0) (2,0)

f S2 y 0
f S3 x t
f S3 y 0
Recommendations for use of CST

## 3. Avoid CST in critical areas of structures (e.g., stress

concentrations, edges of holes, corners)

## 4. In general CSTs are not recommended for general analysis

purposes as a very large number of these elements are required
for reasonable accuracy.
Example 1000 lb
y 300 psi
3 2

## El 2 Thickness (t) = 0.5 in

2 in E= 30106 psi
El 1
=0.25
1
x
4 3 in

## (a) Compute the unknown nodal displacements.

(b) Compute the stresses in the two elements.
Realize that this is a plane stress problem and therefore we need to use

1 0 3.2 0.8 0
E 0.8 3.2 0 107 psi
D 1 0
1 2 1
0 0 0 0 1.2
2

## ELEMENT Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Area

(sqin)
1 1 2 4 3
2 3 4 2 3

Node x y
1 3 0 Nodal coordinates
2 3 2
3 0 2
4 0 0
Step 2: Compute strain-displacement matrices for the elements

Recall b1 0 b2 0 b3 0 with
1 b1 y2 y3 b2 y3 y1 b3 y1 y2
B 0 c1 0 c2 0 c3
2A c1 x3 x2 c2 x1 x3 c3 x2 x1
c1 b1 c2 b2 c3 b3

## For Element #1: 2(2) y1 0; y2 2; y3 0

x1 3; x2 3; x3 0
Hence b 2 b2 0 b3 2
1

c1 3 c2 3 c3 0
4(3) 1(1) Therefore 2 0 0 0 2 0
1
(local numbers within brackets) B 0 3 0 3 0 0
(1)

6
3 2 3 0 0 2
For Element #2:

2 0 0 0 2 0
1
B 0 3 0 3 0 0
( 2)

6
3 2 3 0 0 2
Step 3: Compute element stiffness matrices

## (1) (1) T (1) (1) T (1)

k At B D B (3)(0.5)B DB
0.9833 0.5 0.45 0.2 0.5333 0.3
1 . 4 0 . 3 1 . 2 0 . 2 0. 2

0.45 0 0 0.3
10 7

1 . 2 0 . 2 0
0.5333 0

0.2
u1 v1 u2 v2 u4 v4
( 2) ( 2) T ( 2) ( 2) T ( 2)
k At B D B (3)(0.5)B DB
0.9833 0.5 0.45 0.2 0.5333 0.3
1 . 4 0 . 3 1 . 2 0 . 2 0. 2

0.45 0 0 0.3
10 7

1 . 2 0 . 2 0
0.5333 0

0.2
u3 v3 u4 v4 u2 v2
Step 4: Assemble the global stiffness matrix corresponding to the nonzero degrees of
freedom
Notice that
u3 v3 u4 v4 v1 0
Hence we need to calculate only a small (3x3) stiffness matrix

## 0.983 0.45 0.2 u1

K 0.45 0.983 0 107 u2
0.2 0 1.4 v2
u1 u2 v2
Step 5: Compute consistent nodal loads

f1x 0

f f2x 0
f f
2y 2y

f 2 y 1000 f S 2 y

## The consistent nodal load due to traction on the edge 3-2

f S2 y
3
N 3 3 2 (300)tdx x
x 0
N 2 3 2
3
3
(300)(0.5) N 3 3 2 dx
x 0

x 3 3 2
150 dx
x 0 3

3
x2 9
50 50 225 lb
2 0 2
Hence
f 2 y 1000 f S 2 y
1225 lb

Step 6: Solve the system equations to obtain the unknown nodal loads

Kd f

## 0.983 0.45 0.2 u1 0

107 0.45 0.983 0 u2 0
0.2 0 1.4
v2 1225

Solve to get

u1 0.2337 10 in
4

4
u2 0.1069 10 in
v 0.9084 10 4 in
2
Step 7: Compute the stresses in the elements

In Element #1
(1) (1) (1)
DB d

With

u1 v1 u2 v2 u4 v4
(1) T
d

0.2337 10 4 0 0.1069 10 4 0.9084 10 4 0 0
Calculate

114 .1
1391.1 psi
(1)

76.1
In Element #2

( 2) ( 2) ( 2)
DB d
With

u3 v3 u4 v4 u2 v2
( 2)T
d

0 0 0 0 0.1069 10 4 0.9084 10 4
Calculate

114 .1
28.52 psi
( 2)

363.35