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BFC34402

CHAPTER 4.0
SLOPE STABILITY
4.1 TYPES & CAUSES OF SLOPE FAILURE

Slope failures major categories


Topple
Fall
1. Fall. This is the detachment of soil
and/or rock fragments that fall down a
slope.
2. Topple. This is a forward rotation of
soil and/or rock mass about an axis
Slide
below the center of gravity of mass Spread
being displaced.
3. Slide. This is the downward
movement of a soil mass occurring on a
surface of rupture.
4. Spread. This is a form of slide by
translation. It occurs by sudden Flow
movement of water-bearing seams of
sands or silts overlain by clays or loaded
by fills.
5. Flow. This is a downward movement
of soil mass similar to a viscous fluid.
4.1 TYPES & CAUSES OF SLOPE FAILURE

4.1.1 Types of slope failure

a) Translational slide:

i. Failure along a weak zone of soil.


ii. Sliding mass can travel long distances before
coming to rest.
iii. Common in course-grained soil.
b) Flow slide:

i. Occurs when internal & external condition force


a soil to behave like a viscous fluid & flow down.
ii. Multiple failure surfaces usually occur & change
continuously as flow proceeds.
iii. Can occur in wet & dry soils.
4.1 TYPES & CAUSES OF SLOPE FAILURE

4.1.1 Types of slope failure

c) Rotational slide:

i. Common in homogenous fine-grained soil.


ii. 3 types of rotational slides;
1. Base slide:
By an arch engulfing the whole slope.
A soft soil resting on stiff layer.
2. Toe slide:
Failure surface passes through the toe
of slope
3. Slope slide:
Failure surface passes through the
slope
4.1 TYPES & CAUSES OF SLOPE FAILURE

4.1.2 Causes of slope failure

1) Erosion (a & b)
2) Rainfall (c)
3) Earthquake (d)
4) Geological features (e)
5) External loading (f)
6) Construction activities (g)
7) Rapid drawdown (h)
4.2 STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPES

4.2.1 Factor of safety


Generally:

When Fs is equal to 1, the slope is in a state of impending failure. Generally, a value of


1.5 for the factor of safety with respect to strength is acceptable for the design of a stable slope.
4.2 STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPES

4.2.2 Infinite slope- Without seepage


4.2 STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPES

4.2.2 Infinite slope- Without seepage

OK
4.2 STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPES

4.2.2 Infinite slope- With steady seepage


4.2 STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPES

4.2.2 Infinite slope Examples


Exercise
A typical infinite slope, Given that:
H = 3m, = 25, =17.8 kN/m3, = 28, and c = 31 kN/m2

1. Determine the factor of safety


2. Determine the factor of safety where seepage through the soil.
( sat =19.81 kN/m3)
4.3 METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.1 Finite slope

What the different between finite and infinite slope?


a) When the value of the critical height of the slope (Hcr) approaches the
height of the slope (H), the slope generally may be considered finite.
b) The surface of potential failure can be considered to be curved or plane
failure surfaces.
4.3 METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.1 Finite slope- Circular Failure Surfaces Analysis


Modes of failure
4.3 METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.1 Finite slope- Circular Failure Surfaces Analysis


Analysis method 1: Mass procedure

For the case of critical circles, the developed


cohesion can be expressed by the relationship
4.3 METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.1 Finite slope- Circular Failure Surfaces Analysis


Analysis method 2: Method of slices
4.3 METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.1 Finite slope- Circular Failure Surfaces Analysis


Analysis method 2: Method of slices-
Examples 1
4.3 METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.1 Finite slope- Circular Failure Surfaces Analysis


Analysis method 2: Taylor method

sat
Gs e w
1 e

' '

u sat

cu c'
Sn Sn
Fc ' H Fc sat H
Exercise
An embankment 15 m high is to be subjected periodically to full
submergence and drawdown conditions. Given that:
Slope angle = 40 Specific gravity = 2.75
void ratio= 0.9 friction angle, u = 20
cohesion of soil = 20 kPa

1. Determine the factor of safety in the submerged condition. Use


Taylors stability number curves.
2. Determine the factor of safety in the drawdown condition. Use
Taylors stability number curves.
4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

4.4.1 Cut Stability

Cuttings are excavated, whereas embankments are built.


A decrease in total stresses and also a decreasing in pore pressure when excavation of the
removal of soils.
Seepage regime develops in the slope after construction which it depends on the drainage
condition and the permeability of the soil.
Therefore, an increment in pore pressure, constant in total stress but falls steadily in effective
stress.
Besides, effective normal stress decreases too since its a part of proportional of soil shear
strength. So that, the long term stability of a cutting is therefore more critical than its stability
at the end of construction.
4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

4.4.2 Embankment stability

Built by rolling or otherwise compacting layers of selected soil.

Compaction process squeezes out air, but as the built up height increases, the lower layers experience
an increase in pore pressure. In coarse grained soils, the excess pore pressures dissipate quickly.

In fine grained soils, the excess pore pressure is slow to dissipate and consolidation may continue for
several years.

The installation of horizontal or vertical drainage blankets is used to speed up this process.

In the course of time, the pore pressure decreases and the effective stresses increase, therefore the
shear strength increase.

Thus, the most critical stability condition for an embankment occurs at the end of construction, or
sometimes during construction.
4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Cut in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Cut in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Cut in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Fill in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Fill in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Fill in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Stability of cut and fill in slope designs


4.4 CUT STABILITY, EMBANKMENT & NATURAL SLOPE

Stability of cut and fill in slope designs


4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

4.5.1 Drainage
Drainage is one of the most widely used methods for improving stability.
Clearly surface water must be removed and build-up of water pressures in tension cracks
prevented. Subsurface drainage must be designed to reduce the water pressures acting on
actual or potential slip surfaces; in this way, the value of the pore pressure, u, is reduced,
thereby producing an increase in the factor of safety.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

4.5.1 Drainage

Several methods exist for drainage system, including horizontal drains and vertical drains.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

4.5.1 Drainage
Drainage may also be achieved by the use of electro-osmosis and by planting suitable
vegetation.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

4.5.2 Restraining Structure

Restraining structures such as piles, retaining walls and anchors may be used to improve
stability. It must be appreciated that the forces and moments to which these structures are
subjected may be very large and hence careful design is essential.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

4.5.3 Modification of Slope Geometry


Changing the geometry of a slope to improve stability can involve the: excavation to unload
the slope; filling to load the slope; and reducing the overall height of the slope.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

6.5.4 Replacement

Where the slip surface is not unduly deep, removal of all (or part) of the slipped material and
replacement provides a relatively simple and straightforward remedial measure. The removed
soil may be replaced by free-draining material (in which case some additional benefit may be
achieved by drainage) or by light structure such as geofoam.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD

4.5.5 Geotextiles

Geo-textiles can be used for:


Segregation of layers: Rock-fill lay on soft ground to form a road or embankment base can be prevented
from punching into the soil below using a geotextile underlay.

Tensile strength: Horizontal membranes can be used to provide tensile reinforcement and reduce
settlement.

A drainage layer: Either as a water-conductor or as a filter to reduce the migration of fine particles into a
granular soil drains.

An impermeable barrier: To prevent or control the flow of contaminated groundwater from or in land-
fill sites.
4.5 SLOPE STABILIZATION METHOD
The End