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Acids and Bases

pH < 7 pH > 7
taste sour taste bitter
react w/bases react w/acids
proton (H1+) donor proton (H1+) acceptor
turn litmus red turn litmus blue
lots of H1+/H3O1+ lots of OH1
react w/metals dont react w/metals

Both are electrolytes.


Acid vs. Base
Different Alike Different

Affects pH
pH < 7 and pH > 7
litmus paper

Topic Topic

Related to
sour taste Acid H+ (proton) Base bitter taste
concentration

does not
react with
pH + pOH = 14 react with
metals
metals
Properties

electrolytes electrolytes

sour taste bitter taste


turn litmus red turn litmus blue
react with metals to slippery feel
form H2 gas
vinegar, milk, soda, ammonia, lye, antacid,
apples, citrus fruits baking soda
ChemASAP
Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.
Common Acids and Bases

Strong Acids (strong electrolytes) Strong Bases (strong electrolytes)

HCl hydrochloric acid NaOH sodium hydroxide


HNO3 nitric acid KOH potassium hydroxide
HClO4 perchloric acid Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide
H2SO4 sulfuric acid

Weak Acids (weak electrolytes) Weak


Weak Base
Base (weak
(weak electrolyte)
electrolyte)

CH3COOH acetic acid NH


NH43OH ammonia
H2CO3 carbonic

NH3 + H2O NH4OH

Kotz, Purcell, Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 1991, page 145


Acid + Base Salt + Water
Orange juice + milk bad taste
Evergreen shrub + concrete dead bush
Under a pine tree + fertilizer white powder

HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOH


salt water
Acid-Base Neutralization

1+ 1-

+ +

H32O+ H2O-
OH H2O H2O
Water ion
Hydronium Hydroxide
Water ion Water Water

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter 3rd Edition, page 584
Acid-Base Neutralization

1+ 1-

+ +

H3O+ OH- H2O H2O


Hydronium ion Hydroxide ion Water Water

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter 3rd Edition, page 584

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