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Basic Nursing: Foundations of

Skills & Concepts


Chapter 12
CULTURAL
DIVERSITY AND
NURSING
Culture and Nursing

Nurses provide health care to culturally


diverse client populations in a variety of
settings.

Knowledge of culturally relevant


information is vital in the delivery of
competent nursing care.
Culture

Dynamic and integrated structures of


Knowledge, beliefs, behaviors,
ideas,attitudes, values, habits,
customs, languages, symbols,
rituals, ceremonies, and
practices that are unique to a
particular group of people.
Ethnicity

A cultural groups perception of itself, or


a group identity.
Race

The grouping of people based on


biological similarities.
Cultural Diversity

The differences among people that


result from racial, ethnic, and cultural
variables.
Important Terms in
Cultural Diversity

Ethnocentrism: assumption of cultural superiority


Oppression: result of ethnocentrism
Stereotyping: the belief that all members of a cultural
group act alike
Dominant culture: prevailing group within a given
society
Minority group: those of fewer numbers
Cultural assimilation: the absorption of the minority
into the dominant culture
Components of Cultural

Culture is composed of beliefs about:


Activity - how people organize and value work.
Social relations - structure of friendships, gender
roles and class.
Motivation - the value and methods of achievement.
Perception of the world - interpretation of life events
and religious beliefs.
Perception of self - refers to personal identity, value,
and respect for individuals.
Characteristics of Cultural

Culture is learned
Culture is not inherited or innate, but integrated
throughout all interrelated components
Culture is shared by all who belong to the cultural
group
Culture is tacit (unspoken) and understood by all in
the cultural group
Culture is dynamic
Cultural & Health Care

How different cultures view the following


variables affects health care in
significant ways.
Definition of health: what is it?
Etiology: what are the origins of disease?
Health Promotion and Protection: how is health
achieved and maintained?
Practitioners and Remedies: who and what can heal
a person?
Cultural Roots

Unlike opinions, preferences, and


attitudes, which can change, cultural
characteristics are deeply rooted and
difficult to change.

Clients reflect their cultural and ethnic


heritage every time they interact with
the world around them.
Cultural & Racial Influences on
Client Care

Culture and race influence client care in


the areas of:

Communication

Orientation to Space and Time

Social Organization
Communication

Language differences can lead to misunderstandings


and frustration.

Alternative methods of communication, such as flash


cards and gestures, may have to be used.

Family members or staff interpreters may also be


necessary to intercede.
Orientation to Space and Time

Issues around personal space and


future orientation vary from culture to
culture and impact the effective delivery
of health care.
Social Organization

Social organization refers to how different


cultural groups determine rules of
acceptable behavior. Examples include:
Family Structure.
Gender Roles.
Religion.
Religion

Culture is influenced by religion, which


in turn affects beliefs and practices
about health and illness.

Spiritual and religious beliefs are


important in many peoples lives. They
can influence lifestyle, attitudes, and
feelings about illness and death.
Biological Variation

Biological variations distinguish one cultural or racial


group from another.

Biological variations include skin color, hair texture,


body structure, eye shape, etc.

Enzymatic differences account for diverse responses


of some groups to dietary therapy and drugs.
Cultural Aspects
& The Nursing Process

Cultural aspects affect all significant


areas of the nursing process:
assessment, nursing diagnosis,
planning/outcome identification,
implementation, and evaluation. Some
areas are more affected than others.
Personal Cultural Assessment

Five areas to be examined in assessing


ones own culture and the influence it
may have on personal beliefs about
health care are:
Influences from own ethnic/racial background.
Typical verbal and non-communication patterns.
Cultural values and norms.
Religious beliefs and practices.
Health beliefs and practices.
Client Cultural Assessment

Six categories of information necessary


for a comprehensive cultural
assessment of a client are:
Ethnic or racial background.
Language and communication patterns.
Cultural values and norms.
Biocultural factors.
Religious beliefs and practices.
Health beliefs and practices.
Culturally Appropriate Care

Respect clients for their different beliefs.


Be sensitive to behaviors and practices different from
your own.
Accommodate differences if they are not detrimental
to health.
Listen for cues in the clients conversation that relay
a unique ethnic belief about etiology, transmission,
prevention, etc.
Teach positive health habits if clients practices are
deleterious to good health.