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New units

Internal surfaces of heat exchanger tubes to


be clean before put into service

Oil , grease , sand etc removed by alkali


(
cleaning (acid pickling ) for removal of rust
and surfaces of the tubes to protect from
corrosion (passivation)

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Chemic l cleaning of boilers
Condensate & feed water system
mechanical cleaning ; alkaline flush
Economiser & Boiler tubes
alkali boil out ; acid cleaning ; passivation
Super heater , steam piping & Re heater

scavenging with steam

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Why passivation ?
Magnetite , Ferric oxide ,
{ Fe3O4 } { Fe2O3 }

Colour black brownish red

Binding tightly binds flakes off easily


nature to base metal from base metal

w.r.to protects the does not protect


corrosion base metal the base metal
{significance}

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Boiler tube before cleaning

Boiler tube after


cleaning

Black magnetite layer


(protective)

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Objectives of water chemistry practice

1 Reduce corrosion of metals


2 Prevent formation of deposits
3 Produce good quality steam
{ without carryover of boiler
water solids }

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Quantity of eposit an unit cleanliness

Quantity of deposit Surface cleanliness

Less than 15 mg /sq.cm. Clean surface


15 to 40 mg / sq.cm. Moderately dirty
more than 40 mg /sq.cm. Dirty

Chemical cleaning should be done whenever deposits are more than 40


mg / sq.cm .
once in 4 years as a mandatory maintenance practice
( guidelines only / not a rule or code ) BIS : 10391

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Deposition in boiler tubes
Sources :
1 water borne materials
2 treatment chemicals
3 corrosion products
4 contaminants

1 Hardness salts { Ca & Mg salts , silica }

2 Dosing chemicals { PO4 , NH3 , N2H4 esw..}


3 Pitting & pre-boiler corrosion products

4 Through condenser leak ; attemperation


water ; regeneration chemical slip & so on

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Deposition in boilers consequences
Reduced heat transfer
{ Ca , Mg salts & silica ..almost insulating }

Complicates subsequent post-


operational chemical cleaning
{ Cu multi-step
step cleaning may bbe
needed }

Chemical
Ch i l cleaning
l i may bbe i ineffective
ff ti
{ Ca , Mg , Silica may not be completely

removed if present in huge quantities }

Under deposit corrosion

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