Example 2
their results, construct ungrouped frequency distribution.
Example 3
The blood glucose level, in milligrams per deciliter, for 30
patients is shown below. Construct a frequency distribution for the data set, using six classes.
Exmaple one
I. The following are 25 final averages in a math class:
64
79

89

66
79

91

66
80

94

67
83

95

71
88

98

•What is the range? •What is the interquartile range?
Average Absolute Deviation from the Mean

Obviously, there are limitations in using range or interquartile range as measures of variability.

It would seem reasonable that any useful measure of variability should

measure the spread around the mean since the mean is the “balance point” of a distribution.

If you find the difference between each data item and the mean, you will get negative values for items that are less than the mean and positive values for items greater than the mean.

If you then sum up all of these differences, you will get zero; this illustrates a special property of the mean.

However, by taking the absolute value of each difference, you will get
the distance of each item from the mean, and the sum of these
distances would measure the total spread around the mean
Example 2
Given the following data: 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 18. •What is the average absolute deviation from the mean?
Example 3
Given the following data: 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 18. •What is the variance
Measures of Relative Deviation

When the deviation of observations within a series is to be measured, the standard deviation is the best measure.

But the size of the standard deviation depends upon the size of the mean as well as the unit of measurement of observation.

Hence to compare the variations of two or more variables which are in different units as well as with marked differences in the size of the means, comparison with standard deviation is not suitable.
Z score

Using the data presented in Table, find the percentage of students whose scores range from the mean (70.07) to 85, the SD is 10.27

(1) Convert 85 to a Z score:
Z = (8570.07)/10.27 = 1.45
2) Look up the Z score (1.45) in Column A, finding the proportion (.4265)

One student has their exam result in mathematics and a second student has their exam result in English.

The second student has a higher mark than the first student; however, given that the exam marks for English and mathematics have different distributions, it is not possible to say that the second student has gained a higher achievement.

In order to make a judgment as to whether the second student has done better than the first, we need to judge their mark according to the mean and standard deviation of each set of marks.

For each value, in this case a student’s exam mark, a Z score
converts how far each exam mark is from the mean exam mark in
units of standard deviation.
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