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To Explore the Nature And

Composition of Unknown
Group members:
Haris Irfan (29)
Saba Sohail (19)
Siddiqa Batool (09)
Hamza Ashfaq (39)


• Introduction
• Equipment Used
• Results and Discussions
• Applications
• Conclusions
• References

• Nano materials is the most renowned field of science
nowadays and on which daily advancements are being
made. It helps us in textiles, electronics, food & health etc.
• Nanomaterials hold potential to make supercomputers that
are small enough to be carried in a shirt pocket or machines
that can repair damaged tissues by travelling through the
human body
• The unique properties of nanoparticles arise from their size

Equipment Used:
• Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS):
 MIRA 3 TESCAN Scanning Electron Microscope was used
for EDS elemental analysis.
 It depends on the investigation of a sample through
interactions between light and matter, analyzing X-rays in
its case.
 Determination of composition


• Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM):

 MIRA3 TESCAN Scanning Electron Microscope was used
for the scanning of material. MIRA3 is a high-performance
SEM system we have at IST.
 The purpose of SEM is to determine the Particle shape,
size and morphology.


• X-Ray Diffraction (XRD):

 The X-Ray diffraction machine used in our laboratory is
GNR Explorer. It is a non-destructive technique for the
qualitative and quantitative analysis of the crystalline
materials, in form of powder or solid
 This method tells us the Extent of Crystallization of the

Results and Discussions:
1. Results obtained from Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
2. Results obtained from Scanning Electron Microscope
3. Results obtained form X-ray Diffraction

1. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

Elements Weight Percentage Atomic Percentage

Carbon 96.17 97.10
Oxygen 3.83 2.90

2. Scanning Electron Microscopy

5.0kx 10.0kx 25.0kx

10µm 5µm 2µm

Comparison with Literature:

Figure 1. Figure 2.
SEM image at 5µm SEM image at µm obtained form
Literature [13]
• The size of our sample is approximately 4-6µm where the SEM image of
literature comes out to be 4.5µm. This also proves our sample to be graphene
nanosheets [13]. 10
3. X-Ray Diffraction:

Comparison with Literature:

XRD pattern of Graphene nanosheet obtained from Literature

[16] 12
• Graphene find their application in pharmaceuticals e.g.
chemotherapy, phototherapy, combo therapy etc. [19].
• They are also used in Li-ion storage batteries [20].
• Potential applications of graphene are also found in areas,
such as sensors, nanoelectronics and nanocomposites
materials [11].
• Graphene can be used in the manufacture of ideal
superconductor [21].
• In addition to electronic applications, graphene has also
been reported to improve the color of photonic crystals,
suggesting potential for applications in optical devices [22]


• Graphene is a transparent and flexible conductor that holds

promise for various material/device
• applications, including solar cells, light-emitting diodes
(LED), touch panels and smart
• windows or phones [23].
• Graphene Nanosheets can also find their use in biomedical
application such as for
• Miniaturization of Potentiometric Cholesterol Biosensor [24].

• The sample given to us was Graphene nanosheets.
• The sample in the form of sheets as observed from SEM and
compared with literature.
• We predict the size of Graphene nanosheet to be almost
• The sample has shown crystallinity and this was observed
from XRD. The XRD and literature both show peak of 002
and 100.

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