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Amira Nadja Binti Mohamed Nasran
What is BREXIT?

Brexit is an abbreviation (kısaltma) for “British exit”,

referring to the UK's decision in a June 23, 2016
referendum to leave the European Union (EU)
EU and Great Britain : A History
• The World War I and II had
brought about unprecedented
deaths and destructions to the
• A simple theory gained traction; if
countries form stronger economic
ties, they will be less likely to fight
each other.
• In 1957, the European Economic
Community (EEC) was officially
established by the Treaty of Rome.
• It was then consisted of six member
states - Belgium, France, Italy,
Luxembourg, West Germany and
the Netherlands.
• But the UK was not included.
• It tried to join in 1963 and
1969, but was vetoed and
blocked by the current French
President Charles De Gaulle.
• De Gaulle doubted the UK's
political will and his official
reason was that the UK’s
economy was not compatible
(uyumlu değil) with Europe’s.
• A few years later, once the
Gaulle was out of power, the
UK became the member of
EEC with Ireland and
• But not everyone was sold on
the idea of joining the EEC.
1975 UK Common Market
• In 1975, two years after
joining in, the UK
embraces Europe in

•British voters have backed

the UK's continued
membership of the EEC by a
large majority in with 67.2%.

•Despite several cabinet

ministers having come out in
favour of British withdrawal.
David Cameron and
Conservative Party
• In 2013, UK Prime Minister David Cameron pledged
(taahhüt edilmiş) to hold a referendum during the early
part of the next parliament - by the end of 2017 at the
latest - if the Conservatives win the 2015 general election.
• Cameron did win the re-election (yeniden seçim).
• Soon afterwards the European Union Referendum Act
2015 was introduced into Parliament to enable the
• In a speech to the House of Commons (avam kamarası) on
22 February 2016, Cameron announced a referendum date
of 23 June 2016.
• Cameron favoured (tercih edilen) remaining in a reformed
European Union.
2016 Referendum on EU Membership :
Campaign groups
“Leave” ISSUES “Remain”
(Vote Leave) (Britain Stronger in Europe)
Britain can never control Leaving will not solve the
immigration until it leaves the migration crisis but bring it to
European Union, because Britain’s doorstep because
freedom of movement gives IMMIGRATION border controls from the
other EU citizens an (göçmenlik) Continent will move from
automatic right to live there. Calais in France to Dover in

Britain’s links with the EU are

holding back its focus on
emerging markets – there is TRADE 44% of Britain’s exports go to
no major trade deal with (ticaret) other EU countries. Putting up
China or India, for example. barriers with the countries that
Leaving would allow the UK Britain trades with most would
to diversify its international be counterproductive.
Too many of Britain’s laws are The exit campaign has over-
made overseas by dictates exaggerated how many laws are
passed down from Brussels and LAW determined by the European
rulings upheld by the European (hukuk) Commission. It is better to shape
Court of Justice. UK courts EU-wide laws from the inside
must become sovereign again. rather than walking away.

Around three million jobs are

The danger to jobs has been linked to the EU and will be
over-exaggerated. By plunged into uncertainty if
incentivising investment JOB voters plump for exit, as
through low corporation tax, (iş) businesses would be less likely to
Britain can still flourish. invest if the country was outside

Britain does not need the EU to In a globalising world the UK’s

prosper internationally. With interests are best protected by
the Commonwealth, the UK remaining part of the EU block,
can have just as much clout as CLOUT with American and Chinese
it does from inside the EU. (etki) leaders indicating as much.
Talk of capital flight is Banks will flee the UK
nonsense. London will and the City of
remain a leading financial London collapse if Britain
centre outside the EU and FINANCE votes for exit, because the
banks will still want to be (finans) trading advantages of being
headquartered in Britain inside the EU help boost
due to low tax rates. banks' profits.
Britain could soon be asked
to contribute to a EU Army, European countries together
with reports suggesting are facing the threats from
Angela Merkel may ISIS and a resurgent Russia.
demand the Prime DEFENCE Working together to combat
Minister’s approval in (müdafaa) these challenges is best – an
return for other effort that would be
concessions. That would undermined if Britain turns
erode the UK’s independent its back on the EU.
military force and should
be opposed.
The Referendum Results :
Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales
and England
The reason for the unexpected outcome ;-

1. According to London School of Economics

economist Thomas Sampson, "Older and
less-educated voters were more likely to
vote “leave.”
2. Poor economic outcomes at the individual
or area level were associated with voting to
3. Support for leaving the European Union is
strongly associated with self-reported
opposition to immigration.
• The vote's result defied expectations and roiled global
markets, causing the British pound to fall to its lowest level
against the dollar in 30 years.
Theresa May and BREXIT

• Prime Minister David Cameron

resigned the morning after the vote
and a few weeks later
• Theresa May was elected leader of
the Conservative Party and new
Prime Minister.
• Theresa May was against Brexit
during the referendum campaign but
is now in favour of it because she
says it is what the British people
• Her key message has been that
"Brexit means Brexit"
Article 50
• The process of leaving the EU formally began on March 29,
2017, after May sent a letter to EU President Donald Tusk,
triggering (tetikleme) Article 50 of the Treaty.
• Article 50 is the process set out in the Lisbon Treaties for
Member States to follow when leaving. It is the only lawful
way to withdraw from the EU.
• The UK has two years from that date to negotiate
(müzakere etmek) a new relationship with the EU.
• Meaning the UK is scheduled to leave on Friday, 29 March
• It can be extended (süresi uzatılabilir) if all 28 EU members
• Questions have swirled around the process, in part because
Britain's constitution is unwritten (yazısız) and in
part because no country has left the EU using Article 50
Great Repeal Bill and EU Law
• the repeal bill will repeal the 1972 European Communities
Act, which took Britain into the EU and meant that
European law took precedence over laws passed in the UK
• It will also end the power of the European Court of Justice in
the UK.
• All existing EU legislation will be copied across into domestic
UK law to ensure a smooth transition on the day after Brexit.
• Working out which bits of UK law came from the EU is not
as simple as it may sound.
• Until the UK actually leaves, EU law will continue to apply.
But after leaving, the European Union (Withdrawal) Act (as
it will be by then) comes into force (yürürlülüğe girmek).
What makes the process to be more
1. The size of the “divorce bill”;
– the sum of money demanded by the EU from the UK for the
departure, £35 billion to £39 billion (equivalent to 179 billion
Turkish Liras to 200 billion Turkish Liras)

2 . future of Scottish secession (ayrılma),

– Scotland pushes independence from British on the day after the UK
as a whole voted to leave, while Scotland voted to remain in EU
– Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon confirmed her intention to
hold a second referendum on Scottish independence between fall
2018 and spring 2019
– “I am ensuring that Scotland’s future will be decided by … the
people of Scotland,” Sturgeon said.
3. Britain's international agreements,
− According to the Financial Times there were
approximately 759 international agreements, spanning
168 non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a
party to upon leaving the EU.
− This figure does not include WTO or UN opt-in accords,
and excludes "narrow agreements", which may also have
to be renegotiated.
4. Relations with the Republic of Ireland
• There is still great uncertainty in relation to a "hard
border" between the Republic and Northern
• At present as both the UK and the Republic of
Ireland are members of the EU, and so are in both
the Customs Union (gümrük birliği) and the Single
Market (ortak pazar), and there is freedom of
movement within the Common Travel Area, no
checks of any kind take place at the border.
• Following Brexit, the border between Northern
Ireland and the Republic of Ireland will become a
land border between the EU and UK (a non-EU
• A referendum for the reunification of
Ireland (Irlanda'nın birleşmesi) was immediately
after the UK-EU referendum results were
• In April 2017 the European Council agreed that, in
the event of Irish reunification, Northern Ireland
would rejoin the EU.
5. the borders with France and between Gibraltar and
• If Britain leaves Europe, right • Gibraltar is a British Overseas
away the border will Territory and headland, on
leave Calais and go to Dover. Spain's south coast.
France will not continue to • Remain has taken 96 per cent of
guard the border for Britain if the vote in the EU
it's no longer in the EU. referendum in Gibraltar
• Mainly had to do with trade and immigration

Soft Hard

Keep things as they are now Import taxes on goods and services
in both directions

Continue the free movement of Restrict the immigration of EU

people and goods citizens into the UK

• Example of soft Brexit : Norway

 It is a member of single market but not
the full member of EU.
 It accepts the free movement of people.
Conclusions :
The Future of UK
• The future of UK is still uncertain.
• Talks and negotiations are still ongoing about the size of the
“divorce bill” - the sum of money demanded by the EU from
the UK for the departure, future of Scottish secession,
Britain's international agreements, relations with
the Republic of Ireland, the borders with France and
between Gibraltar and Spain.
• UK still has long way to go, and 2 years is not enough.
• There are possibility that UK would not actually leave EU.
As according to Lord Kerr, the Article 50 – after triggering –
is still revocable (iptali mümkün/ geri alınabilir).