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 A MESSAGE comes from somewhere and leads

The two point of prominence of English Clause:
the beginning and the end
The beginning : is where we put information which
links the clause to what has come before
 We find conjunctions at the beginning of clauses because they
provide a logical link with what has gone before
 We also find information about the topic of the clause, what the
clause is about
 The topical information is also related to something which has
been introduced earlier in a text or is retrievable from the context
I come from down town in the valley


THEME Is what the clause is going to be about

this is what I’m talking about
Looking backwards, relating the current message to what
has gone before
this is what I’m saying about
Pointing both backwards and forwards by picking up on
information which is already available and adding to it
and by presenting information which was not there
 Ideational/ Topical is usually but not always
the first nominal group in the clause
 Topical Theme may also be nominal group
complexes, adverbial groups, prepositional
phrase or embedded clauses
 In the unmarked case, the Topical Theme is
also subject
 A Topical Theme which is not the Subject is
called a Marked Topical Theme
Nominal group as Theme
 Jack went up the hill
Theme Rheme
Nominal group complex
 Jack and Jill went up the hill
Theme Rheme
Embedded clause
 ((what jack and Jill did)) was going up the hill
Theme Rheme
 Down Jack fell
Theme Rheme
Prepositional phrase
 Up the hill Jack and Jill went
Theme Rheme
 His crown he broke
Theme Rheme
 Relate the clause to its context
◦ Conjunctive / Conjuntive adjunct ( free to move in
a clause )
◦ Conjunction ( at the beginning )
the procedur was simple
but, nevertheless was very effective
the procedur was simple
but, was nevertheless very effective
the procedur was simple
but, was very effective nevertheless
 Conjunctions tend to provide Textual Theme
within a clause complex
 Conjunctive Adjuncts tend to (but don’t
always) join text outside of clause complex
◦ Continuatives are small set of items which, if they
are there, are always at the beginning of the clause
and signal that a new move is beginning : well,
right, OK, now, anyway, of course
 Modal adjunct
Perhaps we can wait until next week
Modal Topical
 Vocatives ( name, nick name used to address
Dearly beloved we are gathered here today
vocative topical
Mary, we decided to wait until next week
vocative topical
Mary decided to wait until next week
 If the dependent clause comes first
then it is the Theme for the whole Clause Complex
 If the dependent clause comes first
str topical
Theme Rheme
then it is the theme for the whole Clause complex
str topical
Theme Rheme
Occur in certain identifying where theme and
Rheme are equated with each other. They
always involve nominalisation

 What we wanted to do was wait until next

Theme Rheme
 take the form
It + be + . . . .

It was the lecturer ((who made the decision))

Theme Rheme Theme Rheme
Theme Rheme
It was suggested ((that they wait))
Theme Rheme Str Topical
Theme Rheme
Theme Rheme
 Did we decide to wait?
fin Subj

 On Saturday will you be going?


 What time is the exam?

 Who are you trying to kid?
Theme Rheme
 Write your name in the upper right hand corner

 Write your name in the upper right hand corner

Theme Rheme
 What a beautiful day it is
Theme Rheme

 How divinely he dances

Theme Rheme
 Metafunction  Components of Theme
Textual Continuative (Well, OK, etc)
Structural (Conjunction / Wh-relative)
Conjunctive (adjunct)
Interpersonal Modal (adjunct)
Ideational Topical (Subject Component)
Or Circumstantial Adjunct

Note: Wh-relatives and Interrogative

are also topical element
 I ‘m getting tired of you
 Th New

 You ‘re getting tired of me

 Th New

 It ‘s the final act of our little tragedy

 Th New
 Make an analysis on MOOD, TRANSITIVITY
 Find the text of your own consisting of at
least 4 paragraphs (don’ forget to include the
source where you find the text)
 Give comment to the analysis you make
◦ The structure of the work
 Cover with IKIP logo
 The text
 The analysis
 The comment on the three points (MOOD,