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What is an approach in teaching?

An approach is a way of looking at teaching and learning.

Underlying any language teaching approach is a theoretical view
of what language is, and of how it can be learnt. An approach
gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use
classroom activities or techniques to help learners learn.

What is an approach to learning?

Young children approach learning in different ways, each bringing a

unique set of attitudes, habits, and preferences to their interactions
and explorations. Approaches to learning is the foundation that
affects how children learn in every other content area.
What is the method of teaching?

A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for

instruction to be implemented by teachers to achieve the desired learning in
students. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be
taught and partly by the nature of the learner.
1. Constructivist Approach

What is the Constructivism ??

that is a learning theory found in psychology which explains how people might
acquire knowledge and learn. It therefore has direct application to education. The
theory suggests that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their

What is the Constructivist teaching ??

That is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a
process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving
information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge.

The idea that learning is not a process of accumulating facts or developing skills,
but a process where a child actively constructs understanding based on his/her
experiences (Piaget) inspires constructivist to adopt it as an approach which is
much used in the teaching of science.
2. Contextual Approach

Contextual Approach or Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) claims to be

based on Constructivist Approach. This approach emphasizes teacher’s effort to
relate teaching to students’ environments, and to relate students’ knowledge to its
application in real life. Some characteristics to be developed in Contextual
Approach (Suyanto and Latief, 2002) are emphasizing the importance of problem
solving, acknowledging the need to conduct learning activities in various contexts,
such as home, society, and work place. Guiding learning toward independent study,
emphasizing learning on various contexts of students’ lives, encouraging students
to learn from peers and group work, and using authentic/process assessment.
3. Quantum Teaching and Learning

Quantum Teaching and Learning (Degeng, 2001; DePorter, et al. 1999) is defined
as interactions that transform energy into radiance, and Quantum the
orchestration of the variety of the interactions that exist in and around the
moment of learning. Quantum Teaching and Learning (QTL) also claims to be
based on Approach. QTL has similarities with Suggestopedia. Suggestopedia
focuses on language teaching, while QTL focuses on teaching and learning in
general. QTL emphasizes efforts to create enjoyable learning activities to reach
students’ welfare. QTL suggests that teacher enter students’ world and bring
teacher’s world. The deeper the teacher enters the students’ world, the more
influence can he/she give to students.
Quantum teaching in the application conducts the procedures of teaching like
1. Grow the attention through making students satisfied for the benefit of lesson
2. Create and tell the experience of educating.
3. Name the things like formula, lesson, or others so the student may keep
4. Give the students chance to demonstrate what they know.
5. Give the students the method how to repeat the lesson in the unusual ways.
6. Celebrate all what the students have done for their participation, success, or
anything for instance.
4. Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each

with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to
improve their understanding of a subject.

Cooperative Learning method (Slavin, 1995) hold the idea that students should
work together to learn and are responsible for their teammates’ learning as well as
their own. Cooperative learning claims that group work is better than individual
competition. In practice, cooperative learning in class is conducted in small groups.

PAKEM stands for Pembelajaran yang Aktif Kreatif Efektif, dan Menyenangkan
(active, creative, effective, and joyful learning), for both teacher and students.
This is one of the learning models developed for Indonesian context.
PAKEM should be supported by teacher’s attitudes which are open-minded
listening to students’ opinions, respecting students’ opinions, giving feedback,
encouraging, growing self-confidence, letting students try before assisting, not
mocking, making habits for students to listen to others, and tolerating errors
and encouraging correction.
6. TEFL in 2004 Curriculum in Indonesia

The problems of TEFL in Indonesia are: (a) SMA graduates hardly speak and write in
Englih, (b) good mastery of English is helped by attending private courses, (c)
teachers rely to much on textbook, and (d) teachers focus too much on linguistic
The teaching of English in secondary schools in Indonesia in 2004 Curriculum uses
the principles/characteristics that it adopts CLT with Discourse Approach (Celce-
Murcia, Dornyei, and Thurrell, 1995). This approach puts discourse competence as
the ultimate goal, which is supported by socio-cultural competence, linguistic
competence, actional competence, and supported by strategic competence.
Consequently, the target of English competence of secondary school students in
Indonesia is an ability to produce various interpersonal, transactional, and
functional text types (genres), such narration, description, procedure, report,
recount, news item, exposition, explanation, discussion, review, anecdote, and
Besides English is considered as a means for self development, obtaining knowledge,
and global communication, the teaching procedure takes three-phase technique,
namely, pre-activities, main activities, and post activities and all the materials in the
standard of contents (SK-KD) should be taught. They include interpersonal,
transactional, and functional text types. The teaching materials should also be from
various subject-matters, and cover local, national, regional, and international areas.
Another principles are that the teaching focus should be on the skills of: Listening,
Speaking, Reading, and Writing. The teaching approach should be contextualized to
real-life of students; students are required to find other examples from their
surrounding, in addition to the examples provided by the teacher/textbook.

There should be a guide for constructing texts, i.e. in determining the social
function, text/meaning structure, and linguistic features of the texts. The teaching-
learning target is students’ ability to produce oral and written texts and there should
be interactive activities between teacher and student, among students.

While teaching-learning activities include face-to-face, structured exercises, and

independent activities, activities should develop life skills: personal, social,
academic, and vocational skills. Activities should aim at: (a) developing positive
attitudes to diversity (kebhinekaan), and (b) respecting and appreciating local,
national, regional, and international cultural values and they should focus on
students and develop their initiative, creativity, critical thinking, and independent

The Department of National Education has launched 4 standards for TEFL in

Indonesia, namely: Standard of Contents, Standard of Outcomes, Standard of
Learning Process, and Standard of Assessment. These are the minimum standards
to be achieved.