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Lecture 7

Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) is the


field that studies the rates and mechanisms of
chemical reactions and the design of the reactors in
which they take place.
Today’s lecture
 Block 1: Mole Balances
 Block 2: Rate Laws
 Block 3: Stoichiometry
 Block 4: Combine
 California Professional Engineers Exam
Exam is not curved, 75% or better to pass
Problem 4-12

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General Guidelines for California
Problems
Some hints:
1. Group unknown parameters/values on the same side of the
equation
example: [unknowns] = [knowns]
2. Look for a Case 1 and a Case 2 (usually two data points) to
make intermediate calculations
3. Take ratios of Case 1 and Case 2 to cancel as many unknowns
as possible
4. Carry all symbols to the end of the manipulation before
evaluating, UNLESS THEY ARE ZERO
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Gas Phase PFR
The irreversible elementary reaction takes place in the gas
phase in an isothermal tubular (plug-flow) reactor. Reactant A
and a diluent C are fed in equimolar ratio, and conversion of A
is 80%. If the molar feed rate of A is cut in half, what is the
conversion of A assuming that the feed rate of C is left
unchanged? Assume ideal behavior and that the reactor
temperature remains unchanged. [From California
Professional Engineering/Engineers Exam.]
FA 01 ; FI 0 X  0.8
2A B
FA 02  0.5 FA 01 ; FI 0 X?
Unknown: V, k, T, P, CA 0 , FA 0 , FI 0 , V0
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Gas Phase PFR
Will the conversion increase or decrease?

INCREASE: Slower Volumetric Rate (Reactants


spend more time in the reactor

DECREASE: Concentration of Reactant Diluted

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Gas Phase PFR
Assumptions: T  T0 , P  P0 , V1  V2 ,

k1  k 2 , P1  P2 , CT 0  CT 02

1) Mole Balance: dX  rA

dV FA 0

2) Rate Law:  rA  kC2A

3) Stoichiometry: (gas phase)   0 1  X; T  T0 ; P  P0

7 A½B
Gas Phase PFR
1 1
  1  
2 2

C A 0 1  X 
CA 
1  X 
 1  X  
2
4) Combine:  rA  kC  2

 1  X  
A0

 1  X  
2 2
dX kC
 A0
 
dV FA 0  1  X  
 1  X  
X 2
FA 0
V
kC 2A 0 0  1  X   dX
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Gas Phase PFR
kC 2A 0 V
 21    ln 1  X    X  1   
2 2 X
FA 0 1 X

2
Case 1: kC A 01V
 2.9
FA 01

2
Case 2: kC A 02 V
 RHS
FA 02

Take ratio of Case 2 to Case 1


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Gas Phase PFR
Most make this assumption
to keep pressure the same,
CT02=CT01

kCA2 02V  
2 
      1 
2
FA 02 RHS CA 02 FA 01 y A 02 CT 02
2         F 
kCA 01V 2.9 CA 01  FA 02  y A 01 CT 01   A 01 
 
FA 01 F
 A 02 

1 1 FA 02 1
y A 01  y A 02  
2 3 FA 01 2
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Gas Phase PFR
1 2  
3  1  RHS
1  1 
    2.9
2  2 

8  1
 2.9  RHS  2  y A 02 
9  6

8   1  1   1 2  1 2 X 2


 2.9  2 1  ln 1  X 2    X 2  1  
9  6  6   6   6  1  X 2

Solve with computer, X=0.758


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Heat Effects
Isothermal Design
Stoichiometry
Rate Laws
Mole Balance

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End of Lecture 7

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