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ENGINEERING PLASTICS

&
APPLICATIONS
ALOK KUMAR
CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS ENGINEERING
& TECHNOLOGY,
USAGE OF PLASTICS IN MODERN
CARS

Dismantling of >40 modern European cars reveled that in


130 Kg plastics per car– 43% PP, 14% PU, 8%Nylons, 8%PE
GLOBAL PLASTICS USAGE
0.43%
PP
21% PET
0.44% 7%

PVC
PE 17%
36%
0.26%
s
PC
Acrylics 2% PS/ SAN/ ABS
1% Nylon 6 & 66
15%
1%

PE Acetal PP PBT
PET PVC EPS PS/SAN/ABS
Nylon 6 & 66 PC Acrylics

79 % Plastics consumed – PE+PP+PVC+Styrene's


THERMOPLASTICS IN SE ASIA

LL/LLDPE
PVC 17%
20%
HDPE
14%

GP-HIPS
PP 8%
ABS/SAN
24% PC EPS PET
6%
2% 3% 4%
Other ETPs
2%

PP PVC LL/LLDPE HDPE GP-HIPS


ABS/SAN PET EPS PC Other ETPs
PLASTICS END USE PATTERN

Area %
Health
Consumption
2% Defence &
Telecom/el other Consumer Defense & others 2.0
ec. 2% 5%
16%
Consumer 5.0
Transport
6%
Durables
Transport 6.0
Packageing Packaging 23.0
23%
Infrastructur
e
24%
Plasticultur Plasticulture 22.0
e
22%
Infrastructure 24.0
Telecom/ 16.0
Electronics
Health & 2.0
Medicare
PLASTICS-THE MATERIAL
OF CHOICE
• User Friendly
• Versatility
• Light-weight
• Energy Efficient
• Non-corrosive
• Aesthetic
• Abundant
• Recyclable
PLASTICS – Emerging Material
to meet
Engineering Application Demands
• Density
• MFI (Melt flow Index)
• Mechanical Properties
• Impact Strength
• Stiffness
• Toughness
• Creep Resistance
• Abrasion Resistance
• Tear Resistance
 Optical Properties
 Gloss Clarity & Opacity
PLASTICS – Emerging Material
to meet
Engineering Application Demands
 Environmental Stress Cracking Resistance
• Chemical Resistance
 Acid Resistance
 Alkali Resistance
 Hazardous Chem. Resistance
( Pesticide / Insecticide)
 Barrier Properties
 Water Vapour Transmission Rate
 Oxygen Transmission Rate
 Aroma Transmission Rate
PLASTICS – Emerging Material
to meet
Engineering Application Demands
• Easy Processibility
 Printability
 Sealing Property
 Seal Strength
 Cost Effectiveness
 Product Design Flexibility
CALASSIFICATION OF PLASTICS

PLASTICS

THERMO-PLASTICS THERMO-SETTING

COMMODITY ENGINEERING

SPECIALITY
DEFINATION

COMMODITY THERMOPLASTICS
Very High Volume, Low cost,Low
strength, Low Heat Distortion Temp.

ENGINEERING PLASTICS
High strength, High HDT, Low Volume,
High Cost

SPECIALITY THERMOPLASTICS
Very Low Volume, Very High Cost,
Excels in Specific Performance
Requirements.
MAJOR COMMODITY PLASTICS

1. LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE)


2. LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE)
3. HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE)
4. POLY PROPYLENE (PP)
5. POLY VINYL CHOLORIDE (PVC)
6. POLY STYRENE (PS)
MAJOR
ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS

1. ACRYLO NITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE (ABS)


2. STYRENE ACRYLONITRILE (SAN)
3. POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE (PMMA)
4. POLYAMIDE - (PA)
5. POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE- (PET)
6. POLYBUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE- (PBT)
7. POLYOXYMETHYLENE - (POM)
8. POLY CARBONATE - (PC)
9. HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE (HIPS)
MAJOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS

1. POLYTETRA FLUOROETHYLENE (PTFE)


2. THEROPLASTIC POLYURETHANE (TPU)
3. POLY SULPHONE (PSO)
4. POLY ETHER SULPHONE (PES)
5. POLYPHENYLENE SULPHIDE (PPS)
6. POLYPHENYLENE ETHER (PPE)
7. POLY ETHER ETHER KETONE (PEEK)
8. POLY ACRYLATE
9. POLY AMIDE – IMIDE (PAI)
10. POLY ETHER – IMIDE (PEI)
11. LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMERS (LCP)
MAJOR THERMOSET PLASTICS

1. PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE (PF)


2. UREA & MELAMINE FORAMLDEHYDE
3. EPOXY RESINS
4. UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN
5. POLYURETHANES
6. SILICONES
Thermal Properties of Thermoplastics

Heat Deflection Temperature (°C)

Continuous Use Temperature (°C)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
PC POM PSU PET PEI PES PPS PEEK
CRITERIA FOR PERFORMANCE
High Performance

PEI
PSU LCP
Engineering PES
PEEK
Temperature

PPS
PC TPU
PA 11 PA 6/6 HI
PA 6/12 PBT
POM TPE
PA 6 PPO
PA 6/10 PCA – PC/ABS
PA 6/6
Commodity PA 12
ABS
SAN
PS
HDPE
PP

Mechanical Property retention


TOP SEVEN ENGINEERING
PLASTICS
TYPICAL PA 6 PC PPO POM PBT PPCP ABS
PROPERTIES
IZOD Notched 16 85 23 10 6 15 20
(Kg. cm/cm)
HDT (ºc) 104 132 120 110 55 60 82

Water 1.5 0.15 0.07 0.3 0.08 Neg. 0.4


Absorption (%)
Flammability HB V2 HB HB HB HB HB
UL94 (1.47mm)
Sp. Gravity 1.14 1.20 1.06 1.42 1.31 0.9 1.05

Tensile Strength 340 600 500 650 500 300 400


(Kg/Sq .Cm)
Flex. Mod. 9500 24000 25000 26000 23000 13000 23000
(Kg/Sq. Cm)
MAJOR ENGINEERING
PLASTICS
STRENGTHS

AMORPHOUS (PC, PPO, ABS)


• Constant mechanical properties versus
temperature
• Dimensional stability
• Creep Resistance
• Low Shrinkage
• Transparency possible
CRYSTALLINE (PP, POM, PBT/PET)
• Resistance to hydrocarbons
• Good flow behaviour
• Wear and Fatigue resistance
POLYAMIDES

• Several types are available based on raw material


used
• Most widely used polyamides are Nylon 6 & 66
• Condensation reaction of dicarboxylic acids and
diamins (Commercially through the route of
intermediate salts) ---- Nylon 6,& 66
• Ring opening reaction of lactam – Nylon 6, Nylon 12
etc.
• Condensation reaction of amino acids – Nylon 7,
Nylon 11 etc.
POLYAMIDES

Characteristics of Polyamides
• Semi-crystalline material
• Polar in nature
• Resistant to hydrocarbon solvents, grease, lubricants
• Hygroscopic
• High to medium rigidity – improved by glass fibre filling
• Good electrical insulation – adversely affected by moisture
absorption.
• Good abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction
• Flame retardant versions are difficult process.
• Dimensions affected by humidity.
• Not good temp. resistance under load – improved by glass
fibre filling.
POLYAMIDES

APPLICATIONS OF POLYAMIDE

• Gear, Cams, bushes, Bearings


• Valve Seats
• Terminal Blocks
• Connectors
• Automotive Exterior
• Under bonnet Automotive Parts
• Motor Housing
• Optical fibre Sheathing (Nylon 12)
• Insulating liners (Railways
• Hair combs
PA In AIR CRAFT
Application: Aircraft Engine Components
Material: - PA46-GF30

•Airbus

•Injection
moulding

• Highly complex shape minimize the noise level


• Design freedom at low costs
• High impact properties in a wide temperature range
• wall sections as thin as possible- thus reducing valuable weight.
PA in Agricultural film
Application: Agricultural Barrier Film
Material: PA6-unfilled

Extrusion
Processing
Technology

Barrier Film for agricultural use with environmental benefits.

• When used to cover the soil together with the injection of


fumigation chemicals, lower levels of the fumigant can be
used. As the film keeps the active agent in the soil for longer.
PA in Automotive, Air/fuel management
Application: Air duct
Material:- PA6-GF20

Blow Molding
Processing
Technology

Air-duct design offers the best combination of the demanding requirements for:
high temperature air ducts.
· higher cold impact than other similar materials
· higher stiffness at high temperatures (150°C) allowing thinner walls
to be designed.
· high melt strength and a low melt viscosity for optimum Production
PA in AUTOMOTIVE, AIR/FUEL MANAGEMENT

Application: Air inlet manifold


Material: PA6-GF30

Injection
Molding

Ford UK
PA6: The material of choice for
air inlet manifolds
• ‘Fuel economy’ & ‘weight reduction’
• Single molding and replacing aluminium and steel by
plastics
• Provides the chemical, temperature and vibration
resistance required to survive the expected life of
vehicles.
• lower system costs compared to metals through part
and function integration,
• Easier assembly and longer tool life.
• Temperature resistance and a higher burst pressure
resistance after welding.
• Providing safer solutions or more design freedom,
as well as lower system costs as a result of an easier
• Processibility and better surface appearance.
POLY CARBONATE

POLYCARBONATE

• Poly carbonate was first developed in the laboratory


of GE in 1953.
• It was first commercialised in 1958 by GE under the
Trade name of LEXAN
• Polycarbonate Lexan is an ester of carbonic acid.
• LEXAN is commercially produced by
polycondesation of Bisphenol A and Phosgene
POLY CARBONATE

CHARACTERISTICS :
• Highest impact strength
• High rigidity
• High dimensional stability
• High heat distortion temp
• Usability in the temperature range of -50 deg. To 135 deg.
• Flame retardancy and low combustibility
• High optical clarity
• Good electrical insulation properties
• Good strain resistance
• Low water absorption
• Food grades available.
• Good low temp. impact strength
POLY CARBONATE

APPLICATIONS:
• AUTOMOTIVE HEADLAMPS, REFLECTORS AND LENSES
• INDICATORS AND BLINKERS
• DASH BOARD COMPONENTS
• CRASH HELMETS
• TELECOM CONNECTORS
• DOMESTIC ELECTRICAL SWITCHES
• TRAFFIC SIGNAL LENSES
• SIGNAL HOUSINGS
• TELEGRAPHIC POLE INSULATOR
• TERMINAL BLOCKS
• LIGHT DIFFUSER
• STREET LAMP CANOPIES
• BUSINESS MACHINE COMPONENTS
POLY CARBONATE

APPLICATIONS
• BABY FEEDING BOTTLES, MIXIE JARS
• BLOOD OXYGENATORS
• I.V. CANNUELA
• FACTORY ROOFINGS
• RAILWAYS PLATFORMS FOOFINGS/BUS STOPS
• SAFETY GLAZINGS
• TELEPHONE BOOTHS
• OFFICE AND FACTORY PARTITIONS
• COMPACT DISKS AND OPTICAL DATA STORAGE DISKS
• RETURNABLE WATER AND MILK BOTTLES.
PC in AUTOMOTIVE, AUTO LIGHTING
Application: Head lamp bezel
Material: PC-unfilled

Injection
molding.

Audi

Headlamp bezels require


Excellent surface finish & aesthetics
Good heat resistance and be warpage free
Metallic effect and an exceptional appearance.
PC in Electrical / Electronics,
Telecommunication
Application: Mobile phone travel charger
Material: - PC-unfilled

Injection
Molding

Philips

A charger for a mobile phone require :


- Very high aesthetic
- Withstand severe drop tests
- Resistant to all kind of chemical substances,like hand lotions &
soaps.
- Flame retardant and has to pass the pressure test at 125 ºC.
PC in ELECTRICAL LIGHTING

Application: Lamp holder fluorescent lamp,


Material:- PC
Injection
molding.

Fluorescent lamp holders require:


Tough materials with good flow to be able to mold the components
easily-
PC being easy flowing and with excellent mold release.
PC in Electrical / Electronics
: Application: ATM - PC-unfilled

This processing technique makes it possible to attain a cost-saving of up to


300%, when for instance changing from cast aluminium to plastic mouldings
for cash dispensers (ATM’s). This molding is by made the ‘low pressure foam
process’ to produce a 7,5 kg moulded automated telling machine fascia.
Although the main driving force is cost reduction, issues like weight reduction,
torsional stiffness, vandal resistance, paint ability to class A surface finish,
dimensional stability
THERMOPLASTIC POLY ESTER
(PET & PBT)

• Crystalline in nature
• Based mainly on polybutylene
terephthalate. A few grades based on
polyethylene and polycyclohexane
dimethanol terephalate are also available
• The base resins are commercially
manufactured by Esterification reaction of
Terephthalic Acid and appropriate diols.
THERMO PLASTIC POLYESTER
(PET & PBT)

CHARACTERISTICS
• High Mechanical Strength
• Excellent chemical resistance
• High temperature resistance in glass filled grades
• High dimensional stability
• Excellent Electrical tracking resistance
• Can be made flame retardant
• Effect of humidity minimal
• Excellent flow
THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTER
(PET & PBT)
APPLICATIONS:
• Connectors
• TV Components
• Industrial Switches/plug’s
• Business machine components
• Keyboard buttons
• Steam irons
• Cookers
• Air vents
• Plumbing
• Auto ignition systems
• Under bonnet connectors
• Head lamp reflectors
PBT IN AUTOMOTIVE
Application: Actuator, Gear housing window Lift
Material: PBT-GF20

* Dimensional stability for


reliable performance in all
conditions

*Automotive window lift


mechanisms demand shock
resistance over a wide
temperature range,-40°C to
+80°C,

*Excellent dimensional stability


and strength up to the maximum
environmental temperature.

Processing Technology: Injection Molding *Reducing total assembly costs


Opel, Volvo and weight.
PBT IN AUTOMOTIVE
Application: Air flow mass meter housing and sensor
Material: PBT-GF30
•Stability and Narrow tolerances for
parts close to the engine
•This air-flow mass meter measures
air flow speed for the motor
management control system.
•It has to maintain tight tolerances
over the life of the vehicle and
withstand the temperatures
encountered close to the engine.
• Exceptional dimensional stability
and
strength over a wide temperature
range.
• The best balance of mechanical
Processing Technology: Injection Molding properties and good welding
performance,facilitating
Opel manufacturing productivity.
PBT IN AUTOMOTIVE

Application: Sensor, throttle position Application: E-Box, Fusebox


Material: PBT-GF30 Material: PBT-GF10
PBT IN : Electrical / Electronics, Power distribution
& circuit protect
Application: Compact NS Schneider Material: PBT-GF30

Application: Bobbins Schneider


Material: PBT-GF30

Processing Technology: Injection Molding.


Schneider
PET IN AUTOMOTIVE, BREAKE /CLUTCH

Application: Breake Booster Valve bodies


Material: PET-GF35

•Glass fiber reinforced


polyethylene terephthalate
(PET) is the material of
choice for automotive brake
booster valve body
applications.
• It provides weight,
performance and cost
advantages over previously
used thermosets.

Processing Technology : Injection Molding


ADI BMW
PET IN AUTOMOTIVE, BREAKE /CLUTCH
Application: Tandem brake booster
Material: PET-GF35

•Glass fiber reinforced


polyethylene Terephthalate
(PET) is the material of
choice for automotive brake
booster valve body
applications.
• It provides weight,
performance, and cost
advantages over previously
used Thermosets.

Processing Technology : Injection Molding


Various
POLYACETAL (POM)

• Polymer of formaldehyde, commonly known as


Polyacetal, Acetal polymer or Polyoxymethylene was
first commercialised by Du pont in 1959.
• Copolymers were introduced by celanese
corporation 1960 to overcome thermal stability
problem at processing temp.
• Polyacetal is commercially made by polymerisation
of high purity formaldehyde in rapidly stirred inert
medium like dry heptane with controlled traces of
water added containing phosphine and amine
initiators.
POLYACETAL (POM)

CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYACETAL (POM)


• High crystalline
• High flammable
• Resilient and good combination of stiffness and
toughness
• Creep resistant- superior to polyamide
• Low static and dynamic co-efficient at friction
• Very high degree of precision moulding possible
• Not high temp. resistant
• Resistant to organic solvents upto 70 degree.
POLYACETAL (POM)

APPLICATIONS OF POLYACETAL (POM)


• Gears
• Conveyor belt links
• Sprockets and chains
• Blower wheels
• Cams
• Fan blades
• Carburettor float and bodies
• Aerosol containers
• Lighter bodies
• LPG Cylinder caps
• Shower heads
Thank you