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Level 1 1

Fundamental Training

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Contents 2

Topics: Slide No:


• Why measure flow? 3-4
• Flow terminology 5 - 18
• Flowmeter selection 19 - 24
• DP flowmeters 25 - 46
• Velocity flowmeters 47 - 55
• Mass flowmeters 56 - 61
• Displacement meters 62
• Rosemount flow products summary 63
• Exercise 64 - 65

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Why measure flow?
5 Common Reasons 3

Safety
• Uncontrolled flow rates may cause
– temperature & pressure to reach dangerously high levels
– turbines & other machinery to overspeed
– tanks to spill
Custody Transfer
• the measurement of fluid passing from a supplier to a
customer
– cash register of the system
– example a local gas station measures how much gas being
pumped into the vehicle for billing
– requires high measurement accuracy
Product Integrity
• ensuring right amount of blended materials in for example
processed food & gasoline
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Why measure flow?
5 Common Reasons 4

Efficiency Indication
• to determine efficiency of process by
– measuring the amount of each input that has gone into the
product
– comparing the above measurement to the amount of product
producedl
Process Variable Control
• Flow rate is measured & controlled during energy transfer
application, for example
– heat exchanger
» fluid temperature controlled by varying the flow rate
of steam

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Flow Control Loop 5

• Flow Loop Issues:


– May be a Very Fast Process
» “Noise” in Measurement Signal
 May Require Filtering
» May Require Fast-Responding Equipment
– Typically Requires Temperature Compensation

I/P FIC

FT TT

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 6

• Density: rho) = m/V = mass/volume


– Mass per unit volume at given operating conditions.
– Common units: kg/m3 or lb/ft3
– Density of a liquid varies with temperature
– Density of a gas varies with temperature and pressure

Liquids Gases
 Temperature =  Density  Temperature =  Density
 Temperature =  Density  Temperature =  Density
 Pressure = No change  Pressure =  Density
 Pressure = No change  Pressure =  Density

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 7

For Liquids,

Density of liquid at process temperature


• Specific Gravity =
Density of water at 15.6°C

For Gases,
Molecular Weight of gas
• Specific Gravity =
Molecular Weight of air

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 8

• Gas Compressibility Factor: Z-factor


– Used to correct gas equations for real-gas effects.
Accounts for the deviation from the “ideal” situation.
Absolute pressure Absolute temperature

PV = nRT
Volume Universal gas constant
Molecular weight
» For an ideal gas Z=1 and PV=nRT(Ideal Gas Law).
» The True Gas Law: PV=ZnRT
» Z & n Can be found in engineering tables.
» R is dependant on units chosen for P, T & V

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 9

• Viscosity
– Measure of a fluid’s tendency to resist a shearing
force, or to resist flow

Area Force

Fluid
Thickness •Water is 1cP, peanut butter is 10,000 cP

Fixed Plate
» A greater force is required to shear high viscosity
fluids than low viscosity fluids (viscosity = shear
stress/shear rate).
» Viscosity normally decreases with an increase in
temperature for a liquid, but increases with an
increase in temperature for a gas
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 10

• Fluid Type
– Clean Fluid
» A fluid that is free from solid particles, e.g. clean water.
– Dirty Fluid
» A fluid containing solid particles, e.g. muddy water.
– Slurry
» A liquid with a suspension of fine solids, e.g. pulp and
paper, or oatmeal.
– Steam
» Water vapour
– Gas
» Natural gas
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 11

• Flow Profile Pipe Wall

Lower velocity at the edge

Higher velocity in the middle

Lower velocity at the edge

Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow


Transition Flow

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 12

• Reynolds number defines the state of fluid flow


– Dimensionless number
– Indicates flow profile

Laminar Transition Turbulent

0 2000 4000

m m/s kg/m3
Reynolds (Pipe I.D.) ( Velocity) (Density)
Number Viscosity kg/ms
Rd = ( x v x D)/
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 13

Example:
Flow conditions; Velocity = 0.5 m/s
RD = V.d. /  density = 995.7kg/m³
Temperature = 25°C
  = 0.7 / 1000 kg/ms
Viscosity = 0.7cP
= 0.5 x 0.06 x 995.7 x 1000 /0.7 Pipe ID = 60mm
(1 Poise = 0.1 kg/m s)
= 42,673
i) Find the Reynolds number for the fluid.
ii) Identify the type of flow.
(a) Laminar
(b) Transitional
(c) Turbulent

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Fluid Properties 14

• Pressure & Temperature changes inside process pipe


determines which state the steam is in
– Saturated steam (all vapor)
» Steam exactly at its saturation point (SP)
temperature & pressure at which liquid turns to vapor (as
pressure increases, saturation temperature increases)
– Superheated steam
» Steam when pressure drop below SP
» Steam when temperature rise above SP
e.g. at 350 psia, saturation temperature for water is 222°C.
Steam at 350 psia & 278°C includes 56°C of super heat
– Quality steam ( mixture of water liquid & vapor)
» Condensed steam when pressure rise above SP
» Condensed steam when temperature drop below SP
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Flow terminology
Pipe Geometry & Conditions 15

• Texture of inner walls


– smooth wall  slightly increase fluid velocity
– rough wall  slightly decrease fluid velocity
• Inside diameter
– e.g., doubling the diameter increase flow rate by
as much as 4 times
» Vol. flow rate(Qv) = Cross-section area * Velocity
= D2/4 * Velocity
= D2(/4 x Velocity)

Qv = (2D)2 * (/4 x Velocity)


Qv = 4 (D2 * (/4 x Velocity))

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Pipe Geometry & Conditions 16

• Flow Profile Disturbance


– factors that cause flow profile to become irregular
» symmetrical profile
caused by reducers or expanders pipe sections
eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight
pipes
» asymmetrical profile
caused by elbows, valves and tees
eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight
pipes
» swirl
caused by pumps, compressors, or two pipe elbows
in different planes
eliminated by inserting flow conditioners

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Engineering Units 17

Volumetric Flow Rate


• Metric Unit - m3/s
• Others
 StdCuft/s - Standard Cubic feet per second
 StdCuft/min - Standard Cubic feet per minute
 StdCuft/h - Standard Cubic feet per hour
 StdCuft/d - Standard Cubic feet per day
 StdCum/h - Standard Cubic meter per hour
 StdCum/d - Standard Cubic meter per day
 NmlCum/h - Normal Cubic meter per hour
 NmlCum/d - Normal Cubic meter per day
Std - reference to 14.696 psi Atm. at 68 deg.F
Nml - reference to 101.325 Atm. At 0 deg.C

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flow terminology
Engineering Units 18

Mass Flow Rate


• Metric Unit - kg/s
• Others
 lbs/sec - Pounds per second
 lbs/min - Pounds per minute
 lbs/hour - Pounds per hour
 lbs/day - Pounds per day
 gram/sec - grams per second
 grams/min - grams per minute
 grams/hour - grams per hour
 kg/min - kilograms per minute
 kg/hour - kilogram per hour

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flowmeter selection
Specification 19

• Accuracy
– % of rate
» uncertainty of flow proportional to flow rate
Rate of Flow % of Rate Accuracy Uncertainty Range
100 gpm ±2% of 100 gpm 98-102 gpm
50 gpm ±2% of 50 gpm 49-51 gpm
20 gpm ±2% of 20 gpm 19.6-20.4 gpm

– % of full scale
» uncertainty of flow remains constant
Rate of Flow % of Rate Accuracy Uncertainty Range
100 gpm ±2% of 100 gpm 98-102 gpm
50 gpm ±2% of 50 gpm 49-51 gpm
20 gpm ±2% of 20 gpm 19.6-20.4 gpm

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flowmeter selection
Specification 20

• Rangeability (Turndown)
– Meter maximum
» maximum flow rate that a flowmeter is capable of
reading
commonly used for magnetic, vortex and Coriolis
meters
– Application maximum
» maximum flowrate that occurs in the process flow
of a particular application
commonly used for orifice plates, flow nozzles, and
venturi tubes
• Repeatability
– the ability of a flowmeter to produce the same
measurement each time it measures a flow
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters 21

Flow Technologies

Mass Volumetric Head

Coriolis Meter Velocity Positive DP Flow Target


Thermal Meter Meter Displacement Meter Meter
Meter

Magnetic Oval Annubar


Vortex Nutating disc Orifice
Ultrasonic Gear Venturi
Turbine Gerotor Nozzle
Elbow Taps

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters 22

•. Displacement Meters
– measure volume flow rate Qv directly by
repeatedly trapping a sample of the fluid.
» total volume = sample volume * number of samples
High pressure loss
• Head Meters (DP Flow Meters)
– measures fluid flow indirectly by creating &
measuring a differential pressure by means of a
restriction to the fluid flow

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters 23

• Velocity Meters
– FLOW is measured inferentially by measuring
VELOCITY through a known AREA.
» With this indirect method, the flow measured is the
volume flow rate, Qv. Stated in its simplest term
» QV = A * v where
A: cross-sectional area of the pipe
v: fluid velocity
» m3/s = m2 * m/s
A reliable flow measurement is dependent upon the correct
measurement of A and v.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters 24

• Mass Meters
– Infer the mass flow rate via the equation;
» Qm = Qv *  where,
Qm: the mass flow rate
Qv : the volume flow rate
 : fluid density
» kg/s = m3/s * kg.m3

– Consist of 2 devices;
» One device will measure fluid velocity
» The other device will measure fluid density

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 25

Flow Restriction in Line cause a differential Pressure

Line Pressure

(Primary Element)
Orifice Plate

H.P. L.P.

QV= K DP

Constant
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 26

Pressure Flow Controller


Transmitter FIC
DP volumetric
flow
FT
Control
Valve

Primary FE
Element QV= K DP
 Outputs represent true flow only under specified conditions.
Using “constants” in flow equations assumes a static flow
environment.
 For DP flowmeter output to represent true flow, the following
fluid properties must be constant:
 Fluid density
 Fluid viscosity,
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 27

• For varying fluid density and viscosity


– Compensation is required to represent TRUE flow

QM= K DP*(P/T) Partial


Compensation
Takes care of
Density only

Mass Flow, QM = Volumetric flow * Density


= m3/s * kg/m3
= kg/s

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 28

Traditionally way of partially compensated DP mass


flow has been accomplished using a “system.”

Pressure
Transmitter Flow Computer
Pressure
(DP) FIC Flow
Transmitter PT FC
(AP) FT Controller
TT Temperature
Transmitter + Control
Sensor Valve

Primary
FE
Element

QM= K DP*(P/T)

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 29

• 3095 MultivariableTM Flow Transmitter


– 3 Process Sensors used as inputs
to Mass Flow Calculation:
» RTD Temperature Sensor Input
» Differential Pressure Sensor
» Piezoresistive Static Pressure Sensor

QM= N Cd E Y d2 DP*(P/T)
K
These constants takes care of
 velocity of the fluid
 friction of the fluid in contact with the pipe
 viscosity of the fluid
to give a fully compensated dynamic flow measurement
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 30

Discharge Coefficient (Cd)


• Cd is a correction factor to the theoretical equation.
QM= K DP*(P/T) Actual_flow
Cd
Theoretical_flow
Equations for calculating Cd are derived from experimental data.
Cd is a function of beta ratio and Reynolds number, and is different
for each primary element. (Beta ratio = restriction diam. / pipe diam.)

Gas Expansion Factor (Y1)


• Density is NOT constant for gases.
Y 1 f  , k , P , P 1 for Liquids: Y1 1
Cp
 k is the isentropic exponent, a k =<1
property of gases: Cv
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 31

Discharge Coefficient vs. RD


Cd
Concentric Square-edge Orifice

CONSTANT

RD
102 103 104 105

LIQUIDS GASES
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 32

Discharge Coefficient vs. RD & 


Orifice Plate Discharge Coefficients
0.66

0.65
( 4” Flange Taps )
0.64
Discharge Coefficient

Beta Values are


0.63
almost constant
0.62

0.61

0.6

0.59
4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
0 5 10 1 10 1.5 10 2 10 2.5 10 3 10 3.5 10 4 10 4.5 10 5 10
Pipe Reynolds Number
Beta = .75
Beta = .6
Beta = .5
Orifice Diam. / Pipe Diam. = Beta
Beta = .4
Beta = .2
 d/D = 

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation 33

Gas Expansion Factor vs. DP


Gas Expansion Factors
1
Gas Expansion Factor

0.95

The higher the line pressure, the


0.9 more constant Gas Expansion
Factor for a variety of DP

0.85
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
Differential Pressure (inH2O)
1000 psi
Line 250 psi
Pressure 100 psi
50 psi
( k=1.3, beta = 0.6 )
20 psi

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
Components 34

DP Flow Meters consist of two main components:


Primary - placed in the pipe to restrict the flow.
Orifice, Venturi, nozzle, Pitot-static tube, elbow,
and wedge.
Secondary - measures the differential pressure.

Using well-established conversion


coefficients which depends on the type
of head meter used and the diameter of
the pipe, a measurement of the
differential pressure may be translated
SECONDARY into a volume rate.

PRIMARY

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
Orifice Plate 35

• Simplest and least expensive.


• Constrict fluid flow to produce diff. pressure across the plate.
• Produce high pressure upstream and low pressure downstream.
• Flow proportional to square of the flow velocity.
• Greater overall pressure loss compared to other primary
devices.
• Cost does not increase significantly with pipe size (advantage).

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
Venturi Tube 36

• Gradually narrows the diameter of pipe.


• Resultant drop in pressure is measured.
• Pressure recovers at the expanding section of the meter.
• For low pressure drop and high accuracy reading applications
• Widely used in large diameter pipes.
High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side
P1 P2

Cross
section Cross section
Area A1 Flow Area A2

Q (Actual) = C x A 1 x A2 2 x ( P1 -P2 )
x
( A12 - A22 ) 

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
Flow Nozzle 37

• High velocity flow meter.


• Elliptical restriction of flow at nozzle opening.
• No outlet area for pressure recovery.
• For application where turbulence is high (Re > 50000)
eg.,stream flow at high temperatures.
• Pressure drop falls betw. That of venturi tube and orifice plate
(30-95%)
D D/2
High Pressure Low Pressure

FLOW
D d

NOZZLE
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
Pitot Tube 38

Bernoulli’s energy balance for an


incompressible, non-viscous fluid:
Pf 1 Pf 2
Vf 1 Pf 1 V f 12 Pf 2
f
 
f 2 gc f
• Stagnation Pressure Sensing - measures a point velocity.

Theoretical Point Velocity Vf 1 



2 gc Pf 2  Pf 1 
f

In order to measure accurate flow rate, a pitot traverse is required.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
Pitot Tube 39

High (Impact) Pressure Tap Low (Static) Pressure Tap

Fluid Flow

High pressure port Static pressure port

• One-point velocity measurement


– accuracy affected by changes in velocity profile
– tube must be moved back & forth in the flow
stream for average measurement
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP flowmeter
Averaging Pitot Tube (Annubar) 40

High Pressure Tap Low Pressure Tap


Sharp Edge

Blunt Blunt
H.P. L.P.
Front Rear

Cross section
of Annubar

Fluid Flow

• Include several measurement ports over the entire


diameter of the pipeline
– more accurate flow measurement than the regular
pitot tube
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
DP Flowmeter
Pitot Tube 41

• Advantages:
– Can be inserted through a small opening.
– Can sample the velocity at many points.
– Low pressure drop, non-obstrusive.
• Disadvantages:
– Pitot traverse requires a technician, and is time-
consuming.
– Pitot tube is fragile (not suited for industrial app.)
– DP signal is low.
– Accuracy depends on the velocity profile.
– Easily plugged by foreign material in the fluid.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
Wedge Flow Element 42

• inserted in the process pipe


• forms a wedged obstruction on the inner wall of
the pipe
• usually used with remote seals for measuring
– dirty fluids, slurries & fluids at high viscosity (low
RD) that tends to build up or clog orifice plates

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


DP flowmeter
V-Cone 43

• high accuracy
• normally lab-calibrated
• work equally well with short and long straight pipes
• for customers who have limited room for straight
piping requirements
• can be used with some dirty fluids

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Head Meter
Rotameter 44

• Variable-area flowmeters
– float inside the tapered tube rises in response to fluid flow rate
– pressure is higher at the bottom than the top of the tapered tube
– float rests where the dp between upper & lower surfaces of the
float balances the weight of the float
– flowrate read direct from scale or electronically
• commonly used for indication only

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Head Meter
Target Meter 45

• A disc is centered in the pipe


with surface positioned at right
angle to the fluid flow.
• Force of the fluid acting against
the target directly measures the
fluid flow rate.
• Requires no external
connections, seals or purge
systems.
• Useful for dirty or corrosive
fluids.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Head Meter
Target Meter 46

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Low cost • Square-root head/flow
• Easily installed and/or relationship
replaced • High permanent
• No moving parts pressure loss
• Suitable for most gases • Low accuracy
or liquids • Flow rage normal 4:1
• Available in a wide • Accuracy affected by
range of sizes and wear and/or damage of
models the flow primary element
especially with corrosive
fluids.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Magnetic Flowmeter 47

• Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic


induction. Conductive
Process “V” Variable Flow Rate
• A voltage will be induced in a Medium (Feet Per Second)
SST Tube
conductor moving through a Lining “D” Flange
magnetic field. D
• E = kBDV Sensing “E”
Electrodes
– E = magnitude of induced voltage
– V = velocity of the conductor
– D = width of the conductor

“E”
B = strength of the magnetic field Field Coils
– k = proportionality constant
Magnetic Field “B”
(Constant Strength)
As the conductive process liquid moves through the field with
average velocity V, the electrodes sense the induced voltage.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Magnetic Flowmeter 48

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Obstructionless flow • Liquid must be
• Unaffected by viscosity, electrically conductive
pressure, temperature • Not suitable for gases
and density • Can be expensive,
• Good accuracy particularly in small
• No RD constraints sizes
• Suitable for slurries and • Must be installed so that
corrosive, nonlubricating, the meter is always full
or abrasive liquids
• Wide rangeability (30:1)

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Turbine Meter 49

• Consist of multi-blade rotors


supported by bearings and Pickup Probe
enclosed in a pipe section.
perpendicular to fluid flow.
• Fluid flow drives the rotor. Rotor Blades
• Rotor velocity is proportional to FLOW
overall volume flow rate.
• Magnetic lines of flux created by a
magnetic coil outside the meter.

An alternating voltage is produced as each blades cuts the


magnetic lines of flux. Each pulse represents a discrete volume
of liquid.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Turbine Meter 50

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• High accuracy • Moving parts subject to wear
• Rangeability 10:1 • Can be damaged by
• Very good repeatability overspeeding
• Low pressure drops • High temperature,
• Can be used on high overspeeding, corrosion,
viscosity fluids (but with abrasion and pressure transient
lower turndowns) can shorten bearing life
• Rather expensive
• Filtration required in dirty fluids

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Vortex Flowmeter 51

• von karman effect (vortex


shedding)
– As fluid pass a bluff body, it Sensor
Force on
separates and generates Sensor
small eddies/vortices that are
shed alternately along and
behind each side of the bluff FLOW
Pivoting Vortex
body. Shedder
Axis
– This vortices cause areas of Force
fluctuating pressure that are Shedder
Bar
detected by a sensor.
– The frequency of vortex Shedder Bar
generation is directly
proportional to fluid velocity. FLOW

Vortices
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Velocity Meter
Vortex Flowmeter 52

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Good accuracy • Not suitable for abrasive or
• Usually wide flow range dirty fluids
• Used with liquids, gases • Straight upstream pipe
and steam required equal to 30 times
• Minimal maintenance (no pipe diameter or longer
moving parts) • Limited by low velocity (RD
• Good linearity over the < 10,000)
working range

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters 53

• uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.


– Transit-Time Method
» 2 piezoelectric transducers mounted opposing, to focus
sound waves between them at 45° angle to the direction of
flow within a pipe. In a simultaneous measurement in the
opposite direction to fluid flow, a value (determined
electronically) is linearly proportional to the flow rate.
Transmitter
Upstream Transducer Receiver

FLOW

Downstream Transducer

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters 54

• uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.


– Doppler Effect Method
» One of the 2 transducer mounted in the same case on one
side of the pipe transmits sound waves (constant
frequency) into the fluid. Solids or bubbles within the fluid
reflect the sound back to the receiver element. Frequency
difference is directly proportional to the flow velocity in the
pipe.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters 55

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Non-intrusive, • Maximum temperature 150°C
obstructionless • Particular fluid conditions are
• Wide rangeability (10:1) required (TOF-type: clean
• Easy to install (especially liquids; Doppler-type: particles
for clamp-on version) or impurities in the stream)
• Cost virtually • Not very high accuracy (about
independent of pipe size ±2%)
• The flow measurement is • Doppler flowmeter clamp-on
bi-directional type requires a pipe of
homogeneous material
(cement or fibreglass linings
must be avoided)
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter 56

• Operating Principle
– Uses a obsructionless U-shaped tube as a sensor
– Applies Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion to determine flow rate.
– Force = mass x acceleration
– The flow tube vibrates at its natural frequency by an
electromagnetic drive system.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter 57

• Coriolis Effect
– Fluid flowing through the upward moving tube, pushes
downward against the tube.
– Fluid flowing out through the downward moving tube,
pushes upward against the tube.
– The combination of upward and downward resistive forces
causes the sensor tube to twist (coriolis effect).

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter 58

• Signal Transmission
– The amount the tube twist is proportional to the mass flow
rate of the fluid flowing through it.
– Electromagnetic sensors located at each side of the tube
measures the respective velocity of the vibrating tube at
these points.
– The sensor sends this information to the transmitter which
gives an output signal directly proportional to mass flow
rate.

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter 59

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• High accuracy: ±0.25% • Expensive
• Relatively low pressure • Mounting is critical (no
drops vibration)
• Suitable for liquid and • Heat-tracing is required
gas flow in some applications
• Easy to install
• Flow range (10:1)

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Mass Meter
Thermal Meter 60

• Works on the principle of heat transfer by the fluid flow


– Made up o 3 elements arranged along the direction of motion.
» high accurate temperature sensor at upstream
» an electrical heater in between
» high accurate temperature sensor at downstream
– The difference between the two temperature readings is
proportional to the mass flow rate. (if the thermal properties of
the fluid being metered are constant and known).

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Mass Meter
Thermal Meter 61

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• No moving parts • Meter sensitive to fluid heat
• Suitable for large size conductivity, viscosity, and
pipe (insertion type) specific heat
• Good rangeability (50:1) • Mostly gas service (only rare
• Accuracy: ±1% FS liquid service)
• Low permanent pressure • Specific heat of the fluid
losses must be known and constant
i.e. the gas must have a
constant composition
• Proper operation requires no
heat losses due to
conductive exchanges
though the pipe walls
RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow
Displacement flowmeter
Oval Gear Meter 62

• An example of positive displacement meter


– Two meshing oval gears rotate as fluid flows through them
– Gears trap a known quantity of fluid as they rotate
– Each complete revolution of both the gears = 4 * amount of
fluid that fills the space between the gear and the meter
body
– volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the rotational
velocity of the gears

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Rosemount flow products
Summary Table 63

Meter Fluids Dirty Viscosity Pipe Maximum Maximum Pressure


Fluids Size Pressure Temp. Loss

DP/Orifice Liquid,Gas,steam No Low-Medium 0.5 - 40in 6000psig Medium-High

MV/Orifice Liquid,Gas,steam No Low-Medium 0.5 - 40in 6000psig Medium-High

MV/Annubar Liquid,Gas,steam Some Low 0.5 - 72+in 6000psig Low

Magmeter Conductive Fluids Yes Any 0.2 - 36in 1400psig 175°C Very Low

Vortex Liquid,Gas,steam Some Low-Medium 0.5 - 8in 1400psig Low

Coriolis All Yes Any 0.5 - 6in 4000psig 200°C High*

Turbine Liquid,Gas,steam No Low-Medium 0.5 - 24in 6000psig 200°C High

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Exercise 64

1. Which of the following would generally provide the best turndown ?


(A) DP - Orifice Plate (C) Magnetic Flowmeter
(B) V.A.Meter (D) Turbine Meter

Which of the following directly measures mass flow rate, and which
volume flow rate. Indicate “M” or “V”
2. Magnetic Flowmeter [ ]
3. Vortex Meter [ ]
4. Coriolis Meter [ ]
5. Non-compensated DP Flowmeter [ ]
6. Fully-compensated DP Flowmeter [ ]

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow


Exercise 65

7. The following flowmeters all create some pressure loss. Number


them in order, beginning with that which create the least loss.
(A) Venturi tube [ ]
(B) Positive displacement meter [ ]
(C) Magnetic flowmeter [ ]
(D) Vortex Meter [ ]
(E) Annubar [ ]
(F) Orifice plate [ ]

RMT Training - 05 /98 Level 1 - Flow