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SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES

HISTORY, METHODS, AND AREAS OF INQUIRY


Krisha Lorraine Malojo
Leonil John Conejos
Social Science Disciplines

OBJECTIVE:
• Compare and contrast the various Social Science
disciplines and their field, main areas of inquiry,
and method.
Social Science Disciplines

DISCIPLINES OR BRANCHES IN THE


SOCIAL SCIENCES
Anthropology History
Demography Political Science
Economics Psychology
Geography Sociology
Linguistics
Social Science Disciplines

ANTHROPOLOGY
• The study of ancient societies and their cultural tradititons.
• It comes from the Greek word anthropos means “humankind” and logos
which mean “study” (Bonstingl, 1996, p. 206)
• Anthropologists investigate the people’s language, their values,
technologies and even how they group themselves.
Social Science Disciplines

Anthropology has two broad fields:

Physical Physical Anthropology

Cultural  biological anthropology


 studies the biological evolution of man
 provides explanations on the reasons
behind the biological variations among
contemporary human population
Social Science Disciplines

Anthropology has two broad fields:

Physical
Cultural Cultural Anthropology

 investigates and seeks to understand the


cultural features of societies.
Social Science Disciplines

Anthropology has two broad fields:

Physical Three (3) Subdividions

Cultural  Archaeology
 Anthropological linguistics
 Ethnology
Social Science Disciplines

Anthropology has two broad fields:

Physical  Archaeology - seeks to reconstruct the past

Cultural life of ancient societies, trace the cultural


changes that took place and the reason
behind the changes.
 Anthropological Linguistics - study of
language in societies or communities where
language may or may not be written.
Social Science Disciplines

Anthropology has two broad fields:

Physical  Ethnology - uses data gathered through

Cultural observations and interviews with living


people. It studies marriage customs, kinship
patterns, economic system, and religious
rites of cultural groups and compare it with
the way of life of contemporary societies.
Social Science Disciplines

ECONOMICS
• The study of efficient allocation of scarce resources in order to satisfy
unlimited human needs and wants.
• It comes from the Greek words, oikos meaning “home” and nomos which
means “management”.
Social Science Disciplines

Four (4) Factors of Production:


Land
Labor  Land – anything that comes from nature
and which gives life and support to all living
creatures.
Capital  Labor – refers to any human effort exerted
during the production process which
Entrepreneurship includes physical exertion, application of
skills or talent or exercise of intellectual
faculties.
Social Science Disciplines

Four (4) Factors of Production:


Land
Labor  Capital – refers to anything that can be
used to create or manufacture goods and
Capital services.
 Entrepreneurship – the ability to organize
Entrepreneurship all the other factors of production in order
to carry out effectively the production
process
Social Science Disciplines

Two (2) Classification of Economics:

Microeconomics  Microeconomics – study of the choices


made by economic actors such as

Macroeconomics households, companies, and individual


markets.
 Macroeconomics – examines the behavior
of entire economies.
Social Science Disciplines

GEOGRAPHY
• It studies the interaction between the natural environment and
the people living in it.
• It comes from the Greek words, geo meaning “Earth”and
graphos meaning “charting or mapping”.
Social Science Disciplines

Geography is divided into two main branches:

Physical  Physical Geography – studies the natural


features of the earth, like climate, water,
vegetation, and soil.

Human  Human Geography – studies human


population and the impact of its activities
on the planet.
Social Science Disciplines

Eratosthenes of Cyrene
“Father of Geography”
He wrote the three-book volume Geographika.
The book is the compilation of data accumulated in the previous three
centuries about the nature of the surface of the earth, with special attention
to the inhabited portions and the people living in it.
Social Science Disciplines

HISTORY
• The study of the recorded past.
• It comes from the Greek words, historia which means
“learning”.
Social Science Disciplines

Two (2) Types of Historical Sources:

Primary  Primary Source – a testimony of an

Secondary
eyewitness or an account of someone who
has firsthand information on the subject.
 Secondary Source – a testimony of
someone who is not an eyewitness to the
event being narrated.
Social Science Disciplines

Herodotus of Halicarnassus
He wrote the narrative book, The Histories.
It is about the Greek wars against Persia during the third decade of the fifth
century BC.
Social Science Disciplines

LINGUISTICS
• The study of the nature of language through an examination of
the formal properties of natural language, grammar, and the
process of language acquisition.
• It comes from the Latin word lingua which means “language”.
Social Science Disciplines

Subdivisions of Linguistics:
Phonetics
Phonology  Phonetics –the study of speech sounds. It
examines how the sounds are made and

Morphology identifies its properties.


 Phonology – the study of speech sound

Syntax pattern. It identifies what sounds are there


and the categories these speech sounds fall

Semantics
under.

Pragmatics
Social Science Disciplines

Subdivisions of Linguistics:
Phonetics
Phonology  Morphology – the study of how words are
categorized or formed.
Morphology  Syntax – the study of how words are
combined to form a sentence. It categorizes
Syntax types of phrases and types of sentences.

Semantics
Pragmatics
Social Science Disciplines

Subdivisions of Linguistics:
Phonetics
Phonology  Semantics – the study of meaning-making.
 Pragmatics – the study of the language
Morphology context. It is not enough that the correct
meaning of the phrase or sentence is used,
Syntax you must also know the proper way to
convey it.

Semantics
Pragmatics
Social Science Disciplines

POLITICAL SCIENCE
• The study of politics, power and government.
• It comes from the Greek word politea or a person who participates in the
polis. Polis means taking part in its decision-making, which normally
takes place in the market place, where new laws are passed or
disseminated under the scrutiny of the entire community.
Social Science Disciplines

POLITICAL SCIENCE
• Politics is the process of using power in the government.
• Power is the means for the government to rule the power.
• Government is the authority that provides the system of rule over its
territory and for its people.
Social Science Disciplines

Aristotle
He wrote the book, Politics, a pioneer in the field of political inquiry.
It delves on the topic of government and the leaders behind it. The book
makes the connection between the happiness and virtue of the political
community to the people’s participation in politics.
Social Science Disciplines

John Locke
The author of Two Treatises of Government (1698)
It discusses the concept of representative government and the people’s right
to revolution.
Social Science Disciplines

PSYCHOLOGY
• The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
• It comes from the Greek words, psyche meaning “soul” or
“spirit” and logos means “study”.
Social Science Disciplines

Three (3) Major Fields of Psychology:

Clinical  Clinical Psychology – assesses and finds

Developmental treatment for people with psychological


disorder.
 Developmental Psychology – studies the
Experimental intellectual, social, emotional, and moral
development across a lifespan.
Social Science Disciplines

Three (3) Major Fields of Psychology:

Clinical
Developmental  Experimental Psychology – studies the
most basic concepts of psychology like
cognition, perception, memory, and
Experimental learning.
Social Science Disciplines

Wilhelm Wundt
“Father of Modern Psychology”
He is credited for being the first in the movement to make psychology a
science.
Social Science Disciplines

SOCIOLOGY
• The study on how people relate to each other and how they
work as a whole in the larger society.
• It comes from the Latin word socius meaning “friend” or
“companion” and a Greek word logos which mean “study”.
Social Science Disciplines

Auguste Comte
The one who coined the word sociology in 1838 to encapsulate the idea of
improving society by understanding how it operates.
Social Science Disciplines

DEMOGRAPHY
• The study of human population.
• It comes from two ancient Greek words, demos meaning “people” and
graphos meaning “charting” or “mapping”.
• The main source of data are census and other vital statistics.
Social Science Disciplines

Basic Demographic Concepts:


Fertility
Mortality  Fertility – is the incidents of child bearing in
a country’s population. It is measured using

Migration crude birth rate or the number of live births


for every 1, 000 people in a population.

Population Growth  Mortality – is measured using crude death


rate, or the number of deaths for every 1,
000 in a population.
Social Science Disciplines

Basic Demographic Concepts:


Fertility
Mortality  Migration – the movement of people into
and out of a particular territory.

Migration  Population Growth Rate – is simply the


difference between the crude birth rate and

Population Growth the crude death rate.


Social Science Disciplines

Thomas Malthus
He is the author of the article, An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798).