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ninth edition TORTORA  FUNKE  CASE

MICROBIOLOGY
an introduction

12 The Eukaryotes: Part B

Fungi, Algae,
Protozoa, and
Helminths
PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case
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Zygomycota

 Conjugation fungi
 Coenocytic
 Produce sporangiospores and zygospores
 Rhizopus, Mucor (opportunistic, systemic mycoses)

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Zygomycete Life Cycle

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Ascomycota

 Sac fungi
 Septate
 Produce ascospores and frequently conidiospores.
 Aspergillus (opportunistic, systemic mycosis)
 Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum
(systemic mycoses)
 Microsporum, Trichophyton (cutaneous mycoses)

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Ascomycete Life Cycle

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Basidiomycota

 Club fungi
 Septate
 Produce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores.
 Cryptococcus neoformans (systematic mycosis)

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Basidiomycete Life Cycle

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Anamorphs
 Teleomorphic fungi
 Produce sexual and asexual spores.
 Anamorphic fungi
 Produce asexual spores only.
 rRNA sequencing places most in Ascomycota; a few are
Basidiomycota.
 Penicillium
 Sporothrix (subcutaneous mycosis)
 Stachybotrys, Coccidioides, Pneumocystis (systemic
mycoses)
 Candida albicans (Cutaneous mycoses)
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Economic Effects of Fungi

Fungi Positive Effects Negative Effects


Saccharomyces Bread, wine, beer Food spoilage

Trichoderma Cellulose used for juices Cryphonectria


and fabric parasitica (chestnut
blight)
Taxomyces Taxol production Ceratocystis ulm
(Dutch elm disease)

Entomorphaga Gypsy moth control

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Lichens

 Mutualistic combination of an alga (or cyanobacterium)


and fungus.
 Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates; fungus
provides holdfast.

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Lichens

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The Algae

 Eukaryotic
 Unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular (thallic)
 Most are photoautotrophs

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Algae

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Algae

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Algae

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Phaeophyta

 Brown algae (kelp)


 Cellulose and alginic acid
cell walls
 Multicellular
 Chlorophyll a and c,
xanthophylls
 Store carbohydrates
 Harvested for algin

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 12.11b
Rhodophyta

 Red algae
 Cellulose cell walls
 Most are multicellular
 Chlorophyll a and d,
phycobiliproteins
 Store glucose polymer
 Harvested for agar and
carrageenan

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Chlorophyta

 Green algae
 Cellulose cell walls
 Unicellular or multicellular
 Chlorophyll a and b
 Store glucose polymer
 Gave rise to plants

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Bacillariophyta

 Diatoms
 Pectin and silica
cell walls
 Unicellular
 Chlorophyll a and c,
carotene, xanthophylls
 Store oil
 Fossilized diatoms
formed oil
 Produce domoic acid
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Dinoflagellata

 Dinoflagellates
 Cellulose in plasma membrane
 Unicellular
 Chlorophyll a and c, carotene,
xanthins
 Store starch
 Some are symbionts in marine
animals
 Neurotoxins cause paralytic
shellfish poisoning

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Oomycota
 Water molds
 Cellulose cell walls
 Multicellular
 Chemoheterotrophic
 Produce zoospores
 Decomposers and plant parasites
 Phytophthora infestans responsible for Irish potato
blight
 P. cinnamomi infects Eucalyptus.
 P. ramorum causes sudden oak death.
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