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BOSH CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Topic: TEMPORARY STRUCTURES Duration : 120 minutes General contents:  Formworks and false-works  Scaffolds  Barricades Formworks and false-works General 1. The planning and design of formwork and falsework shall be in accordance with the pertinent provisions of ANSI A 10.9, Safety Requirements for Concrete Construction and Masonry Work. Formworks and false-works 2. All formwork, falsework, structural shoring, and bracing shall be designed, erected, braced, and maintained so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that might be applied until such loads can be supported by the structure. Formworks and false-works 3. Supporting ground or completed construction shall be of adequate strength to carry the vertical and lateral loads to be imposed. 4. Splices shall be designed and constructed to prevent buckling and bending. Formworks and false-works 5. Diagonal bracing shall be provided in vertical and horizontal planes where required to provide stiffness and to prevent buckling of individual members. 6. The design of formwork and falsework shall be submitted for review to the Contracting Officer’s representative. Formworks and false-works 7. Drawing or plans showing the jack layout, formwork, shoring, working decks, and scaffolding, shall be available at the jobsite. Formworks and false-works 8. Stripped forms and shoring shall be removed and stockpiled promptly after stripping. Protruding nails, wire ties, and other form accessories necessary to subsequent work shall be pulled, cut, or other means taken to eliminate the hazard. Vertical Shoring 1. When temporary storage of reinforcing rods, material, or equipment on top of formwork becomes necessary, these areas shall be strengthened to meet the intended loads. Vertical Shoring 2. The sills for shoring shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load. 3. All shoring equipment shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that it is as specified in the shoring layout. Any equipment found to be damaged shall not be used for shoring. Vertical Shoring 4. Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the placement of concrete. Any shoring equipment that is found to be damaged, displaced, or weakened shall be immediately reinforced or re-shored. Vertical Shoring 5. Re-shoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams after stripping or where such members are subjected to superimposed loads due to construction work done. Tubular Welded Frame Shoring 1. Metal tubular frames used for shoring shall not be loaded beyond the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer. Tubular Welded Frame Shoring 2. All locking devices on frames and braces shall be in good working order, coupling pins shall align the frame or panel legs, pivoted cross braces shall have their center pivot in place, and all components shall be in a condition similar to that of original manufacture. Tubular Welded Frame Shoring 3. When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring layout, the spacing between towers and cross brace spacing shall not exceed that shown on the layout and all locking devices shall be in the closed position. Tubular Welded Frame Shoring 4. Devices for attaching the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely fastened to the legs of the shoring frames. 5. All base plates, shore heads extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form. Vertical Slip Forms 1. The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted shall be specifically designed for the purpose. Such rods shall be adequately braced where not encased in concrete. Vertical Slip Forms 2. Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the vertical loads are distributed equally and do not exceed the capacity of the jacks. 3. The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other automatic holding devices to provide protection in case of failure of the power supply or the lifting mechanism. Vertical Slip Forms 4. Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the predetermined safe rate of lift. 5. Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shall be provided to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the jacking operation. 6. During jacking operations, the form structure shall be maintained in line and plumb. Tube and Coupler Shoring 1. Couplers (clamps) shall not be used if they are deformed, broken or have defective or missing threads on bolts, or other defects. 2. The material used for the couplers (clamps) shall be of a structural type such as drop- forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. Gray cast iron shall not be used. Vertical Slip Forms 3. When checking the erected shoring towers with the shoring layout, the spacing between posts shall not exceed that shown on the layout and all interlocking of tubular members and tightness of couplings shall be checked. Vertical Slip Forms 4. All base plates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form material and shall be snug against the posts. Single Post Shores 1. All base plates or shore heads of single post shores shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form materials. 2. Wherever single post shores are used in more than one tier, the layout shall be designed and inspected by a structural engineer. Single Post Shores 3. When formwork is at an angle, sloping , or when the surface shored is sloping, the shoring shall be designed fro such loading. 4. Adjustment of single post shores to raise formwork shall not be made after concrete is in place. Single Post Shores 5. Fabricated single post shores and adjusting devices shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, rewelded, or having broken weldments or other defects. If they contain timber, they shall not be used if timber is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or otherwise structurally damaged. Single Post Shores 6. All timber and adjusting devices to be used for adjustable timber single post shores shall be inspected before erection. 7. All nails used to secure bracing or adjustable timber single post shores shall be driven home and the point of the nail bent over if possible. Scaffolds AGENDA  INTRODUCTION  COURSE OBJECTIVES  SCAFFOLDS  TERMINOLOGIES  TYPES OF SCAFFOLDING  BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS  SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION 1. Scaffolding is one of the highest risk occupations in this country. 2. Accident tolls linked with scaffolds are ranges from serious injury to fatality. INTRODUCTION 3. Consequently, it is imperative that various workers, i.e.. Scaffolders, Scaffold Users, Foremen, Site Supervisors, Project Managers, etc. be trained for safety & practical scaffolding. This will definitely reduce or prevent the occurrence of potential hazards from scaffold. COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. To learn the basic safety requirements of scaffolding 2. To provide and maintain a safe working place for the users of scaffolding. 3. To achieve zero LTI/LTA. TERMINOLOGIES  SOLE PLATE- a timber or other member of adequate size and suitable quality used to distribute the load from the base plate over an area of ground, floor joist, etc. TERMINOLOGIES  ADJUSTABLE BASE PLATE- a base plate used for compensating variations in ground level. Sometimes the base plate is nailed or pinned to a sole board to stop lateral movement.  LEDGERS- are horizontal tubes that connect and support the standards and act as support for transom. TERMINOLOGIES  LEDGER BRACING- tubes secured diagonally between lifts from ledger to ledger or standard to standard to ensure stability.  SCAFFOLD- scaffold is an elevated working platform for supporting both personnel and materials. It is a temporary structure… TERMINOLOGIES  TRANSOM- a tube spanning across ledgers to tie a scaffold transversely, which may also support a working platform.  STANDARD- a tube used as a column or vertical in the construction of a scaffold, & transmitting a load to the ground via a Base Plate. TERMINOLOGIES  BRACE- a tube diagonally across two or more members to afford stability.  TOE BOARD- a plank positioned at the edge of a platform or place so as to prevent workers, tools and materials falling from the platform or place. TERMINOLOGIES  MIDRAIL- a tube secured to standards midway between guardrail and platform  GUARDRAIL- a tube erected at the edge of platform and other places to prevent persons falling from the platform or place. TERMINOLOGIES  SWAY BRACE- a tube secured diagonally across the face of a scaffold to ensure stability.  DECKING- close-boarded scaffold platform.  COUPLER- a fitting used to connect scaffolding tubes together. TERMINOLOGIES  TIE- a tube used to connect a scaffold to a rigid anchorage.  JOINT PIN- also known as a spigot. Used for connecting two tubes end to end.  DECKING-close-boarded scaffold platform. TYPES OF SCAFFOLDING  Tube & Coupler Scaffold  System Scaffolds  Tubular Welded Frame Scaffold  Others  Rolling/Mobile Scaffold  Trestle Scaffold  Bamboo Scaffold  Timber Scaffold  Suspended Scaffold  Slung Scaffold  Suspended Scaffold BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS  Materials  Foundations  Ties  Working Platform  Guardrails / Toe boards  Access  Workmanship BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS  Materials to be used in erecting scaffolding should be in good condition.  Steel items should be free from rust.  Mandatory inspection by experienced and competent person to all materials before use. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS SCAFFOLD TUBES  Tubes should be manufactured & tested.  3 main types:  Black Steel Tubes  Galvanized Steel Tubes  Aluminum Alloy Tubes BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS  Both black steel and Galvanized steel tubes possess the same properties except galvanized tubes are more resistant to corrosion.  Aluminum tube has the same outside diameter as steel but is slightly thicker and much lighter. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS SCAFFOLD TUBES INSPECTION  Straight  Free from cracks splits, had dents & excessive corrosion  Cut square & clean at each end  Common faults BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS SCAFFOLD TUBE STORAGE  Wherever possible tubes should be sorted according to length & stored in racks with their ends flush. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS SCAFFOLD BOARDS:  Cat Walk  Timber Boards  Timber boards come in 3 thickness, 38mm, 50mm & 63mm & are normally 225mm wide & 3.90m long.  Shorter boards are used when necessary. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS STORAGE  SCAFFOLD FITTINGS:  Should be sorted by type and kept clean and dry in strong sacks, lightly oiled to prevent rust.  Experienced and competent person before use should inspect scaffolds fitting. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS  Any broken or damage fittings should be discarded.  Rusty threads (if not defective) should be wires brushed and lightly oiled. MANAGEMENT OF MATERIALS:  Should be delivered to site when required only! BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS  Should be removed and stored when the job is finished!  Ensure correct amounts and types of materials arrive on site. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS FOUNDATIONS:  The foot of any standards or upright should be adequately founded on a suitable base plate in order to prevent slipping or sinking.  Soil compaction. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS Sole plates;  Firm Ground- 500mm long x 225mmx35mm  Soft Ground – 765mm long x 225mmz35mm  Under 2 Stds.-1.55m long x 225mmx35mm BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS TIES  It is essential that every scaffold should be securely tied to the building structure throughout its entire length to prevent movement of the scaffold. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS RULES OF THUMB. 1. Space ties every other lift and every 6M along the face of the scaffold. 2. Ties should be fixed with load bearing couplers, as close to the node point as possible. 3. Avoid the use of reveal ties where possible. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS RULES OF THUMB. 4. Take full advantage of any structural features of the buildings e.g. pillars, columns, lintels, rebates, etc. to provide additional strength and stability to the tie. BASIC SCAFFOLD REQUIREMENTS RULES OF THUMB. 5. Make sure that the building is strong enough to support the tie and the load imposed on it by the scaffold. 6. Do not remove tie for any reason until the overall stability of the scaffold has been confirmed. SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE  Scafftag is an internationally used scaffold safety system and through its simplicity, encourage and controls the safety scaffolding and of those who erect or dismantle and use it. SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE  The “Scafftag Safety System” shall be used as a visual warning system to display the status (i.e. safe vs. unsafe ) of scaffolding. SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE  As soon as the erection of a scaffold is completed and before it is put in use, an inspection shall be carried out by the Safety Engineer / Inspector with particular attention to:  Condition of the components used  Place where it is erected SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE  Signs indicating its presence and danger that it may occur  Solidity of the base  Loading and maximum number of person permitted to use SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE  Should the scaffolding has passed for use. A green Scafftag will be affixed restricted to the purpose for it was erected. SCAFFTAG PROCEDURE Should the scaffold present any danger, then a red tag shall be attached to all its access points. Only trained personnel (Scaffolder) will be allowed to climb the scaffold for repair / certification work.  Re-inspection!  After repair.  After severe weather. SCAFFTAG SAMPLES Barricades 1. Any open edges from which a person is liable to fall a vertical distance of more than 2 m shall be protected by suitable fencing barriers of a height of between 900 mm and 1150 mm. WORKSHOP Scaffold Safety