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Holographic Data

Storage
JAKUB KALINOWSKI
COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF WROCLAW
Outline

1) Introduction
2) History of storage
3) What is holography?
4) Data recording and retrievieng
5) Magnonic Holographic Memory
6) Experiment
7) Conclusions
Introduction

 As computer systems continue to become faster, they


will need a way to access larger amounts of data in
shorter periods of time
History of storage (magnetic)

 Tape – used for data, video and audio


 cheap, ideal for backup

 Floppy – same technology as tape


 cheap, small size, portable

 Hard drives
 faster than tape storage
History of storage (optical)

 Compact disc
 introduced in 1982

 DVD
 Initially intended for Audio/Video use

 Blu-ray
 High disk space
What is holography?
 Holography is a technique based on the wave nature of
light which allows us to utilize wave interference between
the object beam and the coherent background.
 Interference pattern is called a “hologram”
 Gr.“holos’‘-the whole and "gramma" - the writing because
it contains the whole information of the object.
 The overall process requires:
- Coherent Light Beam
- Beamsplitter
- Mirror
- Photographic plate
Construction of Hologram

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holography
Reconstruction of Hologram

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holography
Magnonics

 Emerging field of modern magnetism, sub-field of modern solid


state physics
 Combines waves and magnetism
 Dedicated to the science of quasi-particles known as magnons
 Main aim is to investigate the behaviour of spin waves in nano-
structure elements
 Spin waves are a propagating re-ordering of the magnetisation in
a material and arise from the precession of magnetic moments
 Magnetic moments arise from the orbital and spin moments of
the electron
Magnonic Holographic Memory
 Spin wave – collective excitation due to oscillation of electron spins in a
magnetic lattice
 Spins are coupled to each other via the exchange and dipole-dipole
interactions and quantized spin wave is referred to by a quasiparticle –
magnon
 Relatively slow group velocity (105 -108 𝑐𝑚/𝑠)
 Short decay time (10−9 − 10−6 𝑠 ) at room temperature
 These characteristics have left many to ignore spin waves as information
carriers in the past
 Scaling down to the deep nanometer range, where short propagation
distances compensate the slow propagation speed and damping effects
Schematics of MHM
(A) The schematics of Magnonic
Holographic Memory
consisting of a 4×4 magnetic
matrix and an array of spin
wave generating/detecting
elements

(B) Illustration of the principle of


operation

Source: [1]
Experimental setup
https://en.wikipedi
a.org/wiki/Yttrium_
iron_garnet

 Yttrium iron garnet 𝑌3 𝐹𝑒2 (𝐹𝑒𝑂4 )3


 Epitaxially grown on gadolinium gallium garnet 𝐺𝑑3 𝐺𝑎5 𝑂12
 Substrate with (111) crystallographic orientation
 Material was chosen due to its long spin wave coherence
length and relatively low damping http://rruff.info/gadoliniumgalli
umgarnet/X090007

 Length of the whole structure is 3mm, width of the arm in


360µm
 Magnets are the memory elements, where logic bits are
encoded into the two possible directions for magnetization
Experimental setup
(A)The schematics of the
experimental setup

(B) The photo of the YIG


double-cross structure

(C) Transmitted signal S₁₂


spectra for the structure
without micro-magnets

(D)The slice of the data taken


at the fixed frequency of
5.42GHz

Source: [1]
Source: [1]
Holograms
A) two micro-magnets aligned in
the same direction
perpendicular to the long axis

B) orthogonal directions

C) both magnets are directed


along the long axis

 excitation frequency: 5.4GHz


Conclusions

 The observed interference data are matched well by the classical


equation
 Such a good fit shows no feasible sign of the thermal noise
 The main challenge with further magnonic hologram scaling down is
associated with the development of nano-elements for spin wave
excitation and detection
 The use of micro-antennas implies certain limits on the minimum
detector size as the output inductive voltage is proportional to the
area of the detecting conducting contour.
Summary
 First magnonic holographic memory device utilizing spin waves for
information read-out from the magnetic matrix with two
micromagnets
 Results show feasibility of applying the holographic techniques in
magnetic structures, combining the advantages of magnetic data
storage with the wavebased information transfer
 Magnonic holographic devices may be more suitable for
nanometer scale integration with electronic circuits than photons
 Spin wave approach  wavelength can be scaled down to the
nanometer scale, which translates in the possibility of increasing
data storage density to 1Tb/cm²
 Next generation of logic devices exploiting phase in addition to
amplitude for logic functionality
References
1) F. Gertz, A. Kozhevnikov, Y. Filimonov, A. Khitun, Magnonic
Holographic Memory, IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics 51.4 (2015): 1-5
2) Gabor, D. Nobel Lecture, Holography, 1948-1971. Nobel Lectures,
Physics 1971-1980, Editor
Stig Lundqvist, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore (1992).
3) HANDBOOK OF OPTICAL HOLOGRAPHY - CAULFIELD,HJ. Leonardo 22,
444-444 (1989).
4) Thompson, B. J. Applications of holography. (1971).
5) E. D. Daniel, C. D. Mee, and M. H. Clark, Magnetic Recording: The First
100 Years. New York:
IEEE Press, (1999).