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RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
• Introduce the problem that presents the specific problem under study
• State what problem or challenge your research is trying to solve and the context or
circumstances surrounding it.
• The specific issue has not been fully explored by other researches.
• The problem is within your field of study. Otherwise, establish the connection
between the issue and your curricular discipline.
• Discuss how the problem relates to previous study, the difference and what is the
study building on;
• Justify the need to conduct the research. Explain its objectives and importance.
• The researcher should give strong justification for selecting such research problem in
his/her capacity as a researcher. Being a part of the organization or systems and the
desire and concern to improve the systems;
• Discuss the new knowledge your research shall contribute to the filed.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
 Present studies and references that describe what is known, what has been done,
and what else needs to be known and done relevant to your research’s problem
or issue, purpose, and method. These should at most be five years since the
copyright/publication/retrieval date. The only exemption is for classic studies and
references that are essential to the research (e.g. Memorandum Circular, DepEd
Order., CHED Order, Legislation etc.);
 The literature review reflects the principles formulated by experts or authorities in
some field or discipline; and ideas or opinions of experts contained in books,
pamphlets, magazines and periodicals;
 Variables of the study, including its theory must be visible in the discussion;
 It should be organized thematically to conform with the specific problems;
 Confirmation and disconfirmation of claims from different authorities/experts.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 Arrange the studies and literature in a logical and


thematic order. When citing multiple references, cite in
chronological order from the most recent to the oldest.
 End the Review of Related Literature with one or two
paragraphs stating the insights you gained from the
review.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
• The theoretical framework consists of theories, principles, generalizations and
research findings which are closely related to the present study under investigation.
• It is the groundwork for the study, in this framework where the present research
problem understudy evolved.
• The conceptual framework is the schematic diagram which shows the variables
included in the study.
• It shows the translation of theories, principles and philosophy of research into a
model;
• It explores the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
• All the independent and dependent variables should be clearly discussed and
explained how these would influence the results of the study.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

• The conceptual framework is the schematic diagram which


shows the variables included in the study.
• Explain the key factors or variables to be studied and their
relationships with one another.
• Present said variables in a diagram or graphics to clearly show
the relationships.
• A conceptual framework is not necessary for qualitative
research.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
• Begin with a paragraph stating the main problem or objective of your research.
• After the paragraph, break down the main problem or objective into specific sub-
problems or sub-objectives;
• Sub-problem should be stated in such a way that it is not answerable by either
yes, no, when and where.;
• Sub-problems should include all the independent and moderate variables which
are reflected in the conceptual framework;
• Sub–problems should be arranged in logical order and extensive in coverage and
must be mutually exclusive in its dimensions.
• The problem should state the data that can be obtained.
HYPOTHESIS
• It is a simple sentence that compels the essence of the study
yet to be proven in the study that requires further
investigation;
• The level of significance usually at the .05 level should be
stated.
• Write a null hypothesis if the research intends to test the
difference or correlation between variables;
• A null hypothesis is not necessary for qualitative research.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

• Scope and limitation of the study are discussed.


• The parameters and boundaries are well defined.
• Information is presented in the discussion context rather than simply
stated or listed.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

• Specify the potential beneficiaries of the research.


• State the importance of the research results to them.
• Discuss the potential contribution of the research to new
knowledge.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
• Enumerate in alphabetical order the important
variables, scientific terms, and technical words used
in the study.
• Provide the conceptual (or general) and operational
definitions of the terms. An operational definition
describes the term as it is used in your research. This
should be given more emphasis.
• This section is not necessary for qualitative research.
Chapter 2
METHODS

This chapter deals with the procedures and techniques


used by the researcher in completing the study. It
includes research design, respondents, sampling
technique, instruments and techniques, construction of
the instrument, validation, administration and retrieval of
the instrument and statistical treatment of the study.
RESEARCH DESIGN
• The researcher may use one or a combination of the following
research methods, namely, descriptive, survey, historical, case
study, experimental, research and development cycle,
phenomenological qualitative/quantitative methods etc. (were
the subjects manipulated or were observed naturalistically?
• Describe variables (A schematic diagram showing
interrelationship of the variables and treatment should be
presented for experimental design)
POPULATION AND SAMPLING
• Description of the population, setting/location of the study;
• Describe the sampling technique used (if multi-stage sampling was used, etc)
• the sample size (show table of allocation). Power, effect size and precision when
applying inferential statistics
• respondents’/participants’ characteristics, demographic profile of sample (describe
how extraneous/confounding variables and participant attrition were dealt with)
compliance of sample to statistical test assumptions (normality, homogeneity,
linearity, etc) mention ethical standards met
• Note: In experimental research design, respondents are called subjects
SOURCE OF DATA
Questionnaire/Test

 Validity of the questionnaire must be subject to a pre-determined respecification of its


components as specified by the SPSS Data Reduction;
 Content validity must be likewise established by administering to a minimum of 30
participants. This will confirm the language and terminologies fits the desired audience for
appropriate administration.
 Then the administration of the paper is ready for the desired number of respondent. Test of
Normality must be done by checking the SPSS.
 Describe if adopted, modified or constructed;
• Interview /Focus Group Discussion (If any)
• Observation(If any)
• Documentary Analysis (If any)
• Apparatuses/Devises/Laboratory Equipment (If
any)
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
• Techniques used in the administration of the test
questionnaire, Instructions given to participants) and
how retrieval is planned to take place.
• Experimental manipulations and control features (if
any)
• Errors or weaknesses and any consequent limitations
(if any)
DATA ANALYSIS
• Statistical treatment (for quantitative research).
• No need to list the common statistical formula (percentage,
frequency, rank, mean, weighted mean). No lecture.
• Describe how it was used.
• Generation of model, theory, patterns, framework, and
concept (for qualitative research);
• Discussion of the type of statistical analysis that was utilized
followed by the related hypotheses if there is a related
hypothesis.