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WCDMA HSPA

Throughput Problem
Analysis

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Copyright © 2012 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Foreword
 This course describes the detailed process for collecting
information required for identifying HSPA/HSPA+
throughput problems and for handling the problems.

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Objectives
 Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
 Describe HSPA throughput limitations

 Describe troubleshooting process for HSPA/HSPA+ throughput


problems

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Contents
1. HSDPA Throughput Problems

2. HSUPA Throughput Problems

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Contents
1. HSDPA Throughput Problems
1.1 HSDPA Throughput Overview

1.2 Low or Fluctuating HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

1.3 No HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

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HSDPA Throughput Factors
 UE category
Inter-TTI IR Buffer
UE Category Codes Max TB Size Peak Rate
Interval Size
Category 1 5 3 7298 19200 1.2Mbps
Category 2 5 3 7298 28800 1.2Mbps
Category 3 5 2 7298 28800 1.8Mbps
Category 4 5 2 7298 38400 1.8Mbps
Category 5 5 1 7298 57600 3.6Mbps
Category 6 5 1 7298 67200 3.6Mbps
Category 7 10 1 14411 115200 7.2Mbps
Category 8 10 1 14411 134400 7.2Mbps
Category 9 15 1 20251 172800 10.1Mbps
Category 10 15 1 27952 172800 14.0Mbps
Category 11 5 2 3630 14400 0.9Mbps
Category 12 5 1 3630 28800 1.8Mbps

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HSDPA Throughput Factors
 Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)
CQI mapping table for UE categories 7 and 8 (3GPP 25214)
Reference
CQI Transport Number of
Modulation power
value Block Size HS-PDSCH
adjustment D
0 N/A Out of range
1 137 1 QPSK 0
2 173 1 QPSK 0
3 233 1 QPSK 0
…… …… …… …… ……
28 14411 10 16-QAM -3
29 14411 10 16-QAM -4
30 14411 10 16-QAM -5

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HSDPA Throughput Factors
 Maximum available HS-PDSCH code in the cell

 Number of HSDPA users in the cell

 Retransmission rate

 Modulation scheme

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HSDPA Throughput Problem
 Usually, there are two types of the HSDPA throughput
problems:
 The download throughput is low or fluctuating

 The download throughput is zero

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Contents
1. HSDPA Throughput Problems
1.1 HSDPA Throughput Overview

1.2 Low or Fluctuating HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

1.3 No HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

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Normal HSDPA Throughput
 Symptom
 The HSDPA throughput is close to the theoretical value and
keeps stable

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Stable HSDPA Throughput Below the
Theoretical Value
 Symptom
 The HSDPA throughput is low and relatively stable.

 The cause is limitation on the throughput that the user


subscribes to, incorrect throughput limitation through the AT
command, or limitation on the radio resources (codes, power,
or transmission resources).

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HSDPA Throughput Fluctuates Regularly
 Symptom
 the HSDPA throughput rises or drops in a stepwise way, or
fluctuates in a square-wave way and occasionally reaches the
theoretical value during the fluctuation. The cause is that the
parameter do not match in certain environments.

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HSDPA Throughput Fluctuates Irregularly

 Symptom
 The HSDPA throughput occasionally reaches the theoretical
value but fluctuates sharply. This problem has many causes,
and you need to check the FTP server and the UE in the end-
to-end manner.

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Low or Fluctuating HSDPA Throughput
Troubleshooting Flow
 Step1: Checking signaling process to obtain:
 UE Category

 Max bit rate assigned by CN

 Whether the service is established on HSDPA

 Step2: Checking the quality on the air interface to obtain:


 Channel quality indicator (CQI)

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Low or Fluctuating HSDPA Throughput
Troubleshooting Flow
 Step3: Checking radio resources to obtain:
 Available HS-PDSCH code in the cell

 WCDMA user number in the cell

 Available HS-PDSCH power in the cell

 Whether 16QAM is enabled in the cell

 IUB transmission in the cell

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 The factors that may limit the maximum throughput
available to a user can often be found in the signaling
process. Therefore, when the HSDPA throughput is low and
stable, you need to check whether the signaling process is
normal during the service establishment.

 If the HSDPA throughput fluctuates but can reach the


theoretical value, you know that the user throughput is not
limited in any section and can skip this step.

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 Checking the capability type of the UE in the
RRC_CONNECT_SETUP_CMP message:

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 Checking Max Bit Rate assigned by CN in the
RANAP_RAB_ASSIGNMENT_REQ message:

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 If the maximum bit rates assigned by the CN are smaller
than the theoretical value, we needs to check the following
items:
 Subscription information about the tested USIM card on the
HLR

 Maximum throughput allowed by the CN (SGSN/GGSN)

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 If the UE capability and MaxBitRate meet the theoretical
throughput but the HSDPA throughput is close to 384 kbit/s,
check whether the service is established on HSDPA in the
RB_SETUP message

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 If the server is setup on DCH instead of HSDPA, the cause
is the HSDPA service in the cell is not activated or is in
abnormal state. In this case, check whether the cell is
activated and available.

 Otherwise, proceed with step 2 below.

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Step2: Checking the Quality on the Air
Interface
 The reported CQI value determines the maximum rate on
the air interface available to the UE.

 Minimum CQI values corresponding to the theoretical


throughputs of various HSDPA UEs

HSDPA UE Supported Number of Required Minimum


Category Throughput at the Required HS- CQI for the Peak
MAC Layer PDSCH Codes Throughput
Cat12 1.8 Mbit/s 5 18
Cat6 3.6 Mbit/s 5 22
Cat8 7.2 Mbit/s 10 25
Cat10 14.4 Mbit/s 15 26

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Step2: Checking the Quality on the Air
Interface
 Trace changes in the CQI reported by the UE during the
HSDPA data transmission through the Genex Probe:

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Step2: Checking the Quality on the Air
Interface
 If the CQI reported by the UE during the HSDPA data
transmission is smaller than the target value and fluctuates,
it is recommended to use another test place.

 If the CQI meets the requirement mentioned above but the


HSDPA throughput does not meet the requirement, proceed
with the next step.

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 This step is performed for two purposes:
 Checking whether the configuration of all resources (including
OVSF, power, and IUB transmission equipment) meets the test
requirement.

 Checking whether there are other users of a high priority


contending for resources during the test.

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 OVSF resource
 For an UE of category 8, the theoretical throughput requires 10 HS-
PDSCH codes. If the RNC is configured with dynamic code allocation
for HSDPA, the maximum number of codes must be greater than or
equal to 10. This constraint is not required if the dynamic code
function is also enabled on the Node B.

 In addition, the number of licensed codes configured on the Node B


must be greater than 10 because the code resource license
configured on the Node B is shared on the entire base station and the
licensed code resource may be used by other cells.

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Run the LST UCELLHSDPA command on the RNC LMT to
check the configured number of HS-PDSCH codes:

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Run the LST MACHSPARA command on the Node B LMT
to the setting of the 16QAM enabling status :

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Run DSP LICENSE command on Node B LMT to check
license regarding HS-PDSCH code resource and 16QAM
configured on the Node B:

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Number of users in the cell traced on the RNC LMT:

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Use of code tree in the cell traced on the RNC LMT

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Transmission resource
 The items to be checked are as follows:
 Whether the configured physical bandwidth is enough (AAL2 path
or IP path).

 Whether the intermediate IUB transmission equipment is


bottlenecked.

 Whether the HSDPA path configuration complies with the


specifications. Improper configuration may cause limited
throughput or loss of packets.

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Power resource
 Check whether the downlink transmit power of the TRX in the
cell is limited

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Step3: Checking Radio Resources
 Power resource
 Run MOD UCELLHSDPA command on RNC LMT to set the
available power for HSPA

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Contents
1. HSDPA Throughput Problems
1.1 HSDPA Throughput Overview

1.2 Low or Fluctuating HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

1.3 No HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

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No HSDPA Throughput
 This problem seldom occurs.

 Reasons for no HSDPA throughput:


 An improper operation during the test

 Data limitation at the source end (the user plane fails because
the server is abnormal)

 Improper UE driver

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Zero HSDPA Throughput
 Symptom
 the UE is not successfully connected to the FTP server and
cannot download files from the FTP server.

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Step1: Checking the Signaling Plane
 Check whether the PDP activation process is successful

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Step1: Checking the Signaling Plane
 If the signaling process is unsuccessful, check whether
access point name (APN) settings or improper subscription
of the USIM card are correct. If such settings are proper,
you need to find out the cause based on the messages
displayed by the RNC CDT.

 If the signaling process is normal but data transmission fails


on the user plane, proceed with step 2.

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Step2: Checking the User Plane -
Comparative Test of DCH
 Verify the abnormal HSDPA user plane by using the DCH
bearer in both the uplink and downlink directions for a
comparative test.
 If data can be transmitted when the DCH bearer is used, the
problem relates to the HSPA feature of the RAN.

 If data transmission fails after the DCH bearer is used , the


problem does not relate to the HSPA feature.

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Step3: Checking the UE and laptop
 If the HSDPA data transmission fails, you can infer that the
problem does not occur on any equipment other than the
UE or laptop. If the check results are normal, you need to
check whether the UE and laptop work properly.

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Contents
1. HSDPA Throughput Problems

2. HSUPA Throughput Problems

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Contents
2. HSUPA Throughput Problems
2.1 HSUPA Throughput Overview

2.2 Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput Troubleshooting

2.3 Failure to Establish the HSUPA Service

2.4 Failure to Establish an HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s Service

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HSUPA Throughput Factors
 UE Category

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HSUPA Throughput Factors
 RoT (Rise of Thermal)

 Number of HSUPA users in the cell

 Retransmission Rate

 UE transmission power

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Contents
2. HSUPA Throughput Problems
2.1 HSUPA Throughput Overview

2.2 Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput Troubleshooting

2.3 Failure to Establish the HSUPA Service

2.4 Failure to Establish an HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s Service

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Stable HSUPA Throughput Below the
Theoretical Value
 Symptom
 The uplink data rate is stable but does not reach the theoretical
value. This symptom is mainly caused by limited resources or
improper parameter settings (such as the MBR)

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Low and Fluctuating HSUPA
Throughput
 Symptom
 The uplink data rate fluctuates and does not reach the
theoretical value. Many causes contribute to this symptom, for
example, poor transmission quality on the IUB interface,
throughput limitation in certain sections, limitation on the air
interface and transmission resources, and limitation on the CE
resources.

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Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput
Troubleshooting Flow
 Step1: Checking signaling process to obtain:
 UE Category

 Maximum bit rate assigned by CN

 Whether the service is established on HSUPA

 Step2: Checking Tx Power of UE to obtain:


 Whether there is the limitation on transmit power of the UE

 Step3: Checking uplink power load to obtain:


 Whether the uplink load of the cell already reaches the
threshold

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Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput
Troubleshooting Flow
 Step4: Checking Iub transmission tesources to obtain :
 Whether the configured physical bandwidth is sufficient

 Step5: Checking uplink CE resources to obtain:


 Whether the uplink CE of the NodeB is sufficient

 Step6: Checking uplink bandwidth allocated by RNC to


obtain:
 Whether uplink bandwidth allocated by RNC is sufficient

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 Checking the capability type of the UE in the
RRC_CONNECT_SETUP_CMP message:

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 Checking Max Bit Rate assigned by CN in the
RANAP_RAB_ASSIGNMENT_REQ message:

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Step1: Checking Signaling Process
 If the UE capability and MaxBitRate meet the theoretical
throughput but the HSUPA throughput is close to 384 kbit/s,
check whether the service is established on HSUPA in the
RB_SETUP message

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Step2: Checking Tx Power of UE
 Check whether the transmit power of the UE is limited by
observing the UE TxPower item on the RNC LMT

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Step3: Checking Uplink Power Load
 Observe RTWP on the RNC LMT to check whether the
uplink load of the cell already reaches the threshold

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Step3: Checking Uplink Power Load
 If the user rate is limited because the cell reaches the load
threshold, you need to check whether the configured
background noise of the cell matches the actual background
noise.

 To obtain the actual background noise of a cell, you can


observe RTWP when no user in the cell uses any service.

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Step3: Checking Uplink Power Load
 Run LST UCELLCAC
command on RNC LMT to
check the configured
background noise of a cell

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Step3: Checking Uplink Power Load
 If the configured background noise of a cell matches the actual
background noise, the actual uplink load on the air interface
already reaches the load threshold. Check whether other services
in the cell:
 If other users use the service in the cell, the users may occupy part of
the load and cause the load to be limited

 If only one user uses the service in the cell and the user throughput
does not reach the expected value, the possible causes are as follows:

 Strong external interference exists

 The UE OLPC does not converge because the uplink path loss is
low

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Step4: Checking IUB Transmission
Resources
 Check whether the physical bandwidth meets the test requirement
based on the actual required throughput:
 Whether the configured physical bandwidth is sufficient. One E1 line
can provide a physical bandwidth of 2 Mbit/s. When the physical
bandwidth is converted to the application layer, the transmission
efficiency of 0.75 should be considered. During transmission over fast
Ethernet (FE), the physical bandwidth is not limited.

 Whether the intermediate IUB transmission equipment is bottlenecked.


If the condition permits, you can directly connect the RNC to the Node
B for a comparative test.

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Step4: Checking IUB Transmission
Resources
 Check whether the parameter settings comply with the
transmission configuration specifications for the version.
 Run the LST LR command on Node B LMT to check whether
port rate limitation is configured on the Node B

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Step5: Checking Uplink CE Resources
 Run the DSP LICENSE command on the Node B LMT to
query the number of CEs on the Node B

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Step5: Checking Uplink CE Resources
 Check the number of CEs used by each cell by querying the
service resources of cells on the Node B LMT

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Step6: Checking Uplink Bandwidth
Allocated by RNC
 If there are changes in the uplink bandwidth allocated by the
RNC, the HSUPA throughput may change accordingly. You
can observe the changes in the uplink bandwidth by tracing
the uplink bandwidth and throughput on RNC LMT

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Contents
2. HSUPA Throughput Problems
2.1 HSUPA Throughput Overview

2.2 Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput Troubleshooting

2.3 Failure to Establish the HSUPA Service

2.4 Failure to Establish an HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s Service

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Failure to Establish the HSUPA Service
 Symptom
 The uplink throughput does not exceed 384 kbit/s. The
RRC_RB_SETUP message on the air interface shows that the
traffic radio bearer uses DCH

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Step1: Checking the UE capability
 The RRC_CONNECT_REQ message specifies whether the
UE supports the E-DCH function.

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Step2: Checking the Cell Capability
 Run the LST UCELLHSUPA command on the RNC LMT to
query the HSUPA capability and status of the cell.

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Step3: Checking the Throughput
Assigned by CN
 Checking Max Bit Rate assigned by CN in the
RANAP_RAB_ASSIGNMENT_REQ message:

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Step3: Checking the Throughput
Assigned by CN
 Run the LST UFRCCHLTYPEPARA command on the RNC
LMT to query the HSUPA traffic thresholds

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Step4: Checking the RAN Parameter
Settings
 The causes of a failure to establish the HSUPA service
include but are not limited to the following ones:
 Limited uplink power resource. The precondition is that the
uplink admission is enabled.
 Limited uplink CE resources.
 Limited IUB transmission resources.
 Limited maximum number of HSPA users. Run the LST
UCELLCAC command to check whether the value of
MaxHsupaUserNum meets the test requirement.

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Contents
2. HSUPA Throughput Problems
2.1 HSUPA Throughput Overview

2.2 Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput Troubleshooting

2.3 Failure to Establish the HSUPA Service

2.4 Failure to Establish an HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s Service

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Failure to Establish an HSUPA 5.76
Mbit/s Service
 Symptom
 The uplink rate monitored by the DU meter does not exceed 2
Mbit/s. The RB SETUP message shows that the traffic radio
bearer is established on DCH or is established on E-DCH but
the uplink SF used is not 2*SF2+2*SF4

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RB Setup Message
 E-DCH bearer used without supporting the rate of 5.76
Mbit/s

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RB Setup Message
 E-DCH bearer with support for the rate of 5.76 Mbit/s

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Step1: Checking UE Capability
 Only HSUPA UE of category 6 supports the HSUPA 5.76
Mbit/s service. Check the HSUPA capability level supported
by a UE from the RRC_CONNECT_REQ_CMP message

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Step2: Checking the Versions of RNC
and Node B
 For the RNC, only the RAN 10 is required. Because the
Huawei RAN 10 or a later version supports the HSUPA 5.76
Mbit/s service.

 For the Node B, you need to differentiate between the


baseband processing boards. Currently, only the EBBI and
WBBPb boards support the HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s service.

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Step3: Checking the Licensed
Capability of the RAN
 Two control items in the RNC license relate to the HSUPA
5.76 Mbit/s service:
 HSUPA 5.74Mbps per User

 SRB over HSUPA

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Step3: Checking the licensed capability
of the RAN
 Run the LST LICENSE command on the RNC LMT to query
the two control items

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Step3: Checking the licensed capability
of the RAN
 The control item related to the HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s service in
the license on the Node B is HSUPA TTI Function, run the
DSP LICENSE command on the Node B LMT to query it:

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Step4: Checking the Parameter
Settings
 Run the LST UFRCCHLTYPEPARA command on the RNC
LMT to query the SRB over E-DCH

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Step4: Checking the Parameter
Settings
 Run the LST UCORRMALGOSWITCH command on the
RNC LMT to query the enabling status of the 2 ms TTI

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Step4: Checking the Parameter
Settings
 The MBR assigned by the CN needs to be higher than the 2
ms HSUPA traffic threshold
 For the MBR assigned by the CN , check Max Bit Rate
assigned by CN in the RANAP_RAB_ASSIGNMENT_REQ
message

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Step4: Checking the Parameter
Settings
 Run the LST UFRC command on the RNC LMT to query the 2
ms HSUPA traffic thresholds

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Summary
 In this course ,we discussed following HSPA throughput
problems:
 Low or Fluctuating HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

 No HSDPA Throughput Troubleshooting

 Low or Fluctuating HSUPA Throughput Troubleshooting

 Failure to Establish the HSUPA Service

 Failure to Establish an HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s Service

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