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dr.

Afiana Rohmani
FK UNIMUS BLOK4, 2013
 Menghasilkan gamet (oosit)
 Menghasilkan hormon seksual
 Memelihara oosit bila dibuahi
 Menarche:
 Menopause :
 Lapisan :
 Epitel germinativum
 Tunika albuginemia
 Korteks : folikel ovarium berkembang dengan
oositnya.
 Medulla : vaskuler, ji
 Intrauterin: 7juta oogonium, berhenti pada
tahap meiosis 1.
 sebagian atresia.
 Pubertas : 300.000 oosit
 ovulasi, (siklus mens)
 Menopause : sisa 8000 oosit
 atresia
 Folikel ovarium = oosit dikelilingi sel-sel
folikel
 Perkembangan :
1. Fol primordial
2. Fol unilaminer
3. Fol multilaminer
4. Fol sekunder
 Atas rangsangan hrmn FSH
 Fol primordial : sel oosit dibungkus selapis
sel-sel folikel.
 Fol unilaminer :sel-sel folikel mitosis 
1lapis yang kuboid
 Fol multilaminer : pmbntukan zona pelucida
(glikoprotein) ,menglilingi oosit.
 Fol sekunder : sel-sel folikel tambah banyak /tebal.
Muncul celah2 cairan , menyatu = antrum.
 Sel-sel folikel yg mngelilingi oosit =
corona radiata
 Stroma d sekitar folikel mbntuk teka.
 Teka = pnghasil hormon steroid (androstenedion).
 Steroid  estrogen, (ats pengaruh FSH)
1 sklus haid = 1 folikel matang,
= folikel de graff.
 Yang lain atresia.
 Proses dr fol primordial mjd fol matang =
90hari.
- The hilus of the ovary is where all the nerves and
vessels enter the organ. The medulla contains loose
connective tissue, abundant blood vessels and
lymphatics, and nerves. The numbers in the top left
panel indicate the stages of follicular development.
- The surface epithelium of the ovary (bottom left) is
called the mesothelium, which sits on the tunica
albuginea. Note the appearance of primordial follicles
within the outer cortex.
- The oocyte continues to grow at the same time
follicular or granulosa epithelial cells continue to
divide and form multiple layers (multilaminar), as shown
in the bottom right).
- The top panel shows a primary follicle. The
multilayered granulosa cells secrete a glycoprotein and
proteoglycan rich fluid that accumulates in the spaces
between the cells.
- Note how the granulosa cells are separated by the
surrounding stromal or thecae by a distinct basement
membrane (arrows).
- The oocyte is surrounded by a prominent glycoprotein
coat called the zona pellucida (ZP).

- With further development, there is a single fluid-filled


space called an antrum. This is characteristic of a
secondary follicle (bottom panel).
- The oocyte is supported by a mound of granulosa
cells called the cumulus oophorus. The oocyte is still
surrounded by the zona pellucida, and outside the zona
pellucida are some granulosa cells that may
accompany the oocyte when it is ovulated. This layer of
granulosa cells outside the zona pellucida is known as
the corona radiata.
- The thecal cells also continue to differentiate into
theca interna and externa cells with specialized
functions, as shown in the next slide.
- The stromal theca interna cells (top left) lie
immediately outside the granulosa cells, separated by
the basement membrane. The theca interna cells are
larger and paler staining than regular stromal cells or
the surrounding theca externa cells. The interna cells
produce steroid precursors that are converted to
estrogen by the granulosa cells.
- If the ovum is fertilized and implanted in the uterus,
the mature follicle converts into the corpus luteum
(bottom left; CL), or yellow body. It acts as an endocrine
organ that secretes progesterone. Note the formation of
inner granulosa lutein and outer theca lutein cells.
- The bottom right panel compares the granulosa lutein
cells (GLC) with the theca lutein cells (TLC).
- If the ovum is not fertilized, it is expelled from the
uterus with menstruation. The corpus luteum
degenerates and forms the corpus albicans (top
panel), or white body. There are dense accumulations
of collagen, which looks like a scar.

- The corpus albicans is also formed during the later


half of pregnancy after the placenta takes over the role
of steroid (progesterone) secretion from the corpus
luteum.
 Dinding folikel matang  oosit keluar.
 Oosit kluar dibungkus zona pelucida, corona
radiata, sdikit cairan folikel.
 Mnetap di tuba uterina (24jam)
 Setelah ovulasi, sel-sel folikel dan teka
membentuk kelenjar endokrin =
corpus Luteum
 Msekresi progesteron &estrogen (atas
pengaruh LH), slama +/- 10hari.
 Jika tdk hamil  CL brdegenerasi,
progesteron turun, mjadi corpus albicans.
Estrogen turun  FSH naik  folikel
brkembang lagi.
 Jika hamil  HCG mngambil alih LH.
Progesteron tetap naik
- In the following slides, we will conclude by
looking at the ovary and going through the
various stages of the development of the
ovum and follicle.
- Shown to the right is a schematic of the
oval cycle. Unlike the male testis, the
female ovary already contains all of its
oocytes at birth.
- Primordial follicles develop into primary
follicles, followed by mature Graafian
follicles. When the follicle ruptures, it
releases the ovum to travel through the
fallopian tubes to the uterus. The follicle
continues to develop into the corpus luteum
and corpus albicans.
1. Mukosa = lipatan2 panjang, terut ampula.
Epitel kolumner bersilia
sekretorik
2. Muskular tebal
3. Serosa = peritoneum viseral
- The uterine or fallopian tubes, or oviduct, contain
complex mucosal folds with distinct ciliated columnar
epithelium. The ampulla (top left) shows the oviduct in
low power. In the inset, small arrows point to ciliated
cells, while arrowheads point to bulging, non-ciliated
secretory (peg) cells.
- The funnel-shaped opening called the infundibulum
contains many finger-like projections called fimbriae
(bottom left). During ovulation, the fimbriae get close to
the ovary and help to sweep the ovum that is released
into the abdominal cavity.
- As the oviduct approaches the uterus, the mucosal
folds become less complex. The uterine or interstitial
portion (bottom right) contains a relatively simple
lumen and columnar epithelium.
3 lapisan :
1. Endometrium : lap mukosa
2. Miometrium : lap otot tebal
3. Perimetrium : lap serosa /ji
 Lamina propria yg mngandung kelenjar
tubuler.
 Epitel sekretorik = epitel pelapisnya
 2 lapisan :
1. Lapisan basal = di bawahnya lap fungsional
, relatif stabil
2. Lapisan fungsional = lap yg mngalami perub
siklus haid.
 Ats pengaruh hormon estrogen.
 Kelenjar brbentuk tabung lurus, dengan
lumen sempit.
 Akhir fase : tebal endometrium 2-3mm.
- The uterus is divided into endometrial (E), myometrial
(M), and perimetrial (P) layers (top left). The
endometrium prepares for implantation of an ovum by
cycling through proliferative and secretory phases. It
can be divided into the basal and functional layers. The
basal layer remains relatively unchanged through the
cycles.
- The proliferative phase (bottom) is characterized by
long, relatively straight endometrial glands, as indicated
by the arrows.
-
 Dmulai setelah ovulasi. Ats pngaruh hormon
progesteron dr CL.
 Kelenjar brkelok-kelok, timbunan glikogen di
bawah epitel kelenjar.
 Tebal endometrium 5mm. Akumulasi sekret.
- The most characteristic change in the secretory
phase of the endometrium is the “saw-tooth” or
“serrated” appearance of the glands (top left).
- The serrated endometrial glands are magnified . Note
the abundance of coiled or spiral arteries that supply
the entire functional endometrium. The secretory cells
are also shorter with rounder nuclei than those during
the proliferative phase.
- During menstruation, the endometrial surface
epithelium undergoes ischemia, which weakens the
vascular walls resulting in hemorrhage.
 Lapisan
fungsional nekrosis, terlepas, sisa
endometrium mengkerut.
- The cervix uteri is shown in three
different magnifications in the top panel.
The red arrows point to the junction and
change in epithelium, from the columnar
epithelium of the cervical canal to the
stratified squamous epithelium of the
vagina.

- This is known as the strato-columnar


junction, and earliest signs indicative of
cervical cancer occur at this junction.

- The cervical canal contains complex folds


that resemble glands. The epithelium
contains simple, tall columnar mucus-
secreting epithelial cells.

- The cervix also contains much smooth


muscle and dense connective tissue.
 Lapisan :
1. Mukosa
2. Muskularis
3. Adventitia
 Mukosa :
 epitel squamus komplek 150 µm(tebal)
 Sintesis glikogen (atas pengaruh estrogen)
 Bakteri mrubah glikogen mjd asam laktat (pH
rendah)
 Lap. Muskularis:
 Lapisan longitudinal +sirkuler
 Lap. Adventitia :
 Ji padat , kaya serat elastin tebal.
- The vagina wall contains abundant
connective tissue with large amounts of
elastin. There is also a thick muscular layer
(bracket in top panel). The inset shows the
muscular layer in more detail, with
longitudinal and circular smooth muscle
layers.

- The adventitia contains large nerves and


arteries that blend with the connective
tissue of the pelvis.

- The vaginal epithelium (bottom panel) is


covered with non-keratinized stratified
squamous epithelium that contain
abundant glycogen in the cytoplasm. The
glycogen is released into the vaginal lumen,
where bacterial action produces lactic acid
to acidify the mucosa and protect it.

- The arrows indicate surface cells that can


be collected for Pap smears to provide
information on hormonal status and any
abnormalities.
 Lobus-lobus kelenjar tubuloalveolar
 Tiap lobus dipisahkan ji &jar lemak.
 Lobus duktus interlobularis  duktus
laktiferus sinus laktiferus  Muara papilla
mammae.
 Masa ovulasi =estrogen mningkat 
proliferasi sel duktus  mammae kencang.
 Proliferasialveoli di ujung duktus.
 Alveoli = sel-sel epitel kelenjar, ada
mioepitel di skitarnya.
 Masa laktasi :
 Susu diproduksi sel epitel alveoli, ngumpul di
dalam lumennya dan di dalam duktus.
 Jiskeliling alveoli banyak sel limfosit dan sel
plasma  msekresi IgA.
Mammae laktasi
Smoga sukses