Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

Introducing Enthalpy

Enthalpy and Internal Energy


Today’s main concepts:
• Define enthalpy, h
• Recognize that enthalpy and internal energy are both intensive
state properties that can also be determined on the steam
tables.
• Learn to pull values for enthalpy and internal energy from the
steam tables.
• Use steam table values to solve 1st Law balance problems.
3

Last time we learned that if you know two of


the three intensive properties:
Temperature, T
Specific Volume, v
and Pressure, p
...then you could find the other properties at
that state.

Other intensive properties include:


Enthalpy, h
Internal energy, u
and Entropy, s
(which are also found on the steam tables.

h  h(T , v) or u  u ( p, v ) or s  s (T , p)
Introducing Enthalpy 4

Internal Energy (U)


Specific Internal Energy (u) : energy / mass
Kinetic Energy
translational
rotational
vibrational
Potential Energy
electric energy of atoms, molecules, or crystals
Chemical Bonds
All at the microscale….

Enthalpy (H)
Specific Enthalpy (h) : energy / mass
Internal Energy + Work H  U  pV
h  u  pv
5

Internal Energy U

• Invincible microscopic energy on the atomic and molecular scale


• At microscopic scale, the glass is a seething mass of high speed
molecules travelling at hundreds of m/s.
6

Saturated Steam Table

Enthalpy, h

For the time being,


Internal Energy, u we’re going to still ignore
this last quantity.

Notice there are


additional columns on the
steam table that we
ignored last time.
7

What is enthalpy?
Enthalpy is defined in terms of internal energy and the work of
expansion as
Extensive Form Intensive Form

H  U  pV h  u  pv
This combination of terms will show up very frequently,
especially when we begin working with control volumes.
It’s a way to conveniently deal with the internal energy
in combination with the energy associated with
expansion or compression of the substance.

Enthalpy is another formulation of energy and is commonly expressed


in units of kJ or ft-lbf.
8

Example 1: Determine property values


Determine specific volume (v), internal energy (u), and enthalpy (h) of
the following state properties of H20.

a) p = 10 bar T = 179.9 deg C. x = 30%

b) p = 10 bar T = 320 deg. C.

c) p = 10 bar T = 450 deg C.


9

Example 1: Determine property values


Determine specific volume, internal energy, and enthalpy of the
following state properties of H20.

a) p = 10 bar T = 179.9 deg C. x = 30%

from table A.3: at 10 bar the saturated temperature is 179.9 which


means the substance is a mixture of liquid and vapor.
10

From table A-3 the following values may be directly read:


quality spec. vol. int. energy enthalpy
[m3/kg] [kJ/kg] [kJ/kg]
x = 30% vf=0.001127 uf=761.68 hf=762.81
p=10 bar vg=0.1944 ug=2583.6 hg=2778.1

therefore:
v  v f  x (v g  v f ) v  0.0011  0.3(0.1944  0.0011)
v  0.0591 m3 / kg
u  u f  x(u g  u f ) u  761.7  0.3(2583.6  761.7)
u  1308.3 kJ / kg
h  h f  x(hg  h f ) h  762.8  0.3(2778.1  762.8)
h  1367.4 kJ / kg
11

Example 1: Determine property values


Determine specific volume, internal energy, and enthalpy of the
following state properties of H20.

b) p = 10 bar T = 320 deg. C.

vapor

therefore:
v = 0.2678 m3/kg u = 2826.1 kJ/kg h = 3093.9 kJ/kg
12

Example 1: Determine property values


c) p = 10 bar T = 450 deg C.
(v2  v1 )
This also is a gas or superheated v  v1  (T  T1 )
vapor and will need to be found (T2  T1 )
by interpolating from table A-4. (0.3541  0.3257)
 0.3257  (450  440)
(500  440)
 0.3304 m3 / kg

(u2  u1 )
u  u1  (T  T1 )
(T2  T1 )
(3124.4  3023.6)
 3023.6  (450  440)
(500  440)
 3040.4 kJ / kg
(h2  h1 )
h  h1  (T  T1 )
(T2  T1 )
(3478.5  3349.3)
 3349.3  (450  440)
(500  440)
 3370.8 kJ / kg
13

Linear Interpolation:
yunknown  y1 xknown  x1

y2  y1 x2  x1
 y2  y1 
yunknown  y1    ( xknown  x1 )
 x2  x1 
y2
*
yunknown
y1
*
x1 xknown x2
Your turn: Find the value for enthalpy at
T = 400 deg. C and p = 50 bar

at 400°C and p1=40 bar  h1 = 3213.6 kJ/kg


at 400°C and p2=60 bar  h2 = 3177.2 kJ/kg
 h2  h1 
hunknown  h1    ( pknown  p1 ) = 3195.4 kJ/kg
 p2  p1 
Saturation Tables

Example:
A cylinder-piston assembly initially contains water at 3 MPa and
300oC. The water is cooled at constant volume to 200 oC, then
compressed isothermally to a final pressure of 2.5 MPa. Find the
specific volume and enthalpy at each of these three states.
16

State 1:
p1 = 3 MPa= 30 bar and T1 = 300 deg C.

i) Start with superheated vapor table A-4

ii) Interpolate between 280 and 320 deg C.

vb  va
v1  va  (T1  Ta )
Tb  Ta
(0.0850  0.0771)
v1  0.0771  (300  280)
(320  280)

v1  0.0811 m3 / kg
17

State 2:
v2 = v1 = 0.0811 m3/kg and T2 = 200 deg C.

Recognize that this is in the liquid-vapor mixture range.


Refer to Table A-2

i) Locate vg and vf at T = 200 deg C.


v f  1.1565  103 vg  0.1274
v2  0.0811
ii) Determine quality, x2
v  v f  x (v g  v f )
v  vf
x
vg  v f
0.0811  0.0011565
  0.633  63.3%
0.1274  0.0011565
18

State 3:
p3 = 2.5 MPa = 25 bar and T2 = T3= 200 deg C.

Recognize that this is in the compressed liquid.


Refer to Table A-5

i) Locate p3=25 bar and T3=200 deg C

ii) Read the values directly.

v3  1.1555  103 m3 / kg

u3  849 kJ / kg

h3  852.8 kJ / kg
Retrieving u and h Data

Workout Problem
Given Ammonia at 12°C and v = 0.1217 m3/kg
determine P, u and h.

a) Using Tables in Appendix:

b) Using IT:
Retrieving u and h Data

Workout Problem
Given Ammonia at 12°C and v = 0.1217 m-3/kg
determine P, u and h.

a) Using Tables in Appendix:


Retrieving u and h Data

Example:
Given Ammonia at 12°C and v=0.1217 m-3/kg
determine P, u and h.

Notice that
vf = 0.001608 and vg = 0.1923

Since: vf < v < vg


the substance is a liquid-gas mixture
Saturation Properties are:
Tsat = 12 deg C. Psat= 658.9 kPa

Quality is found using:


v  vf
v  v f  x  vg  v f   x
vg  v f
Retrieving u and h Data

Example:
Given Ammonia at 12°C and v=0.1217 m-3/kg
determine P, u and h.
v  vf
x
vg  v f

with
vf = 1.608x10-3,
vg = 0.1923 m3/kg

0.1217  0.001608
x
0.1923  0.001608

x  0.63  63%
Retrieving u and h Data

Example:
Given Ammonia at 12°C and v=0.1217 m-3/kg
determine P, u and h.

Internal Energy:

u  1  x u f  xug  1  0.63255.16  kJ
kg  0.631346.8  kJ
kg

u  942.9 kJ
kg

Enthalpy:
h  1  x h f  xhg  1  0.63256.2  kJ
kg  0.631473. 6  kJ
kg

h  1023.2 kJ
kg
Check:

h  u  Pv  942.9 kJ
kg  658.9kPa0.1217 m3 kJ
kg 103 Nm
103 N m 2
kPa
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 24

Example: (3.77) A system consisting of 1 kg or water undergoes a


power cycle composed of the following processes.
Process 1-2 : Constant-pressure heating at 10 bar from saturated vapor.
Process 2-3: Constant-volume cooling to P3 = 5 bar, T3 = 160°C
Process 3-4: Isothermal compression with Q34 = -815.8 kJ
Process 4-1: Constant-volume heating
Sketch the cycle on T-v and P-v diagrams. Neglecting kinetic and
potential energy effects, determine the thermal efficiency.
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 25

Example: (3.77) A system consisting of 1 kg or water undergoes a


power cycle composed of the following processes.
Process 1-2 : Constant-pressure heating at 10 bar from saturated vapor.
Process 2-3: Constant-volume cooling to P3 = 5 bar, T3 = 160°C
Process 3-4: Isothermal compression with Q34 = -815.8 kJ
Process 4-1: Constant-volume heating
Sketch the cycle on T-v and P-v diagrams. Neglecting kinetic and
potential energy effects, determine the thermal efficiency.
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 26

Example: (3.77) A system consisting of 1 kg or water undergoes a


power cycle composed of the following processes.
Process 1-2 : Constant-pressure heating at 10 bar from saturated vapor.
Process 2-3: Constant-volume cooling to P3 = 5 bar, T3 = 160°C
Process 3-4: Isothermal compression with Q34 = -815.8 kJ
Process 4-1: Constant-volume heating
Sketch the cycle on T-v and P-v diagrams. Neglecting kinetic and
potential energy effects, determine the thermal efficiency.

state 1 2 3 4
P (bar) 10 10 5
T (°C) Tsat=179.9 160 160
v (m3/kg) v1=0.1944 v2= v3=0.3835 v4=v1
u (kJ/kg) 2583.6 3231.8 2575.2
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 27

Example: (3.77) A system consisting of 1 kg or water undergoes a


power cycle composed of the following processes.
Process 1-2 : Constant-pressure heating at 10 bar from saturated vapor.

W12   PdV  Pm dv  Pm v2  v1 


V2 v2

V1 v1

105 N m 2 m3
W12  10 bar 1kg0.3835  0.1944 kJ
bar kg 103 Nm
W12  189.1kJ
U12  Q12  W12  Q12  U12  W12  m  u2  u1   W12
Q12  1 kg  3231.8  2583.6  kJkg  189.1kJ  837.3kJ
Process 2-3: Constant-volume cooling to P3 = 5 bar, T3 = 160°C
Q23  U 23  W23  m  u3  u2   0
Q23  1 kg  2575.2  3231.8  kJkg  656.6kJ
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 28

Example: (3.77) A system consisting of 1 kg or water undergoes a


power cycle composed of the following processes.
Process 3-4: Isothermal compression with Q34 = -815.8 kJ
W34  Q34  U 34  Q34  m  u3  u4 

v4  v f 0.1944  1.102 10 3


x4   3
 0.6317
vg  v f 0.3071  1.102 10

u4  u f  x4 u g  u f   674.86  0.6317 2568.4  674.86  1871 kJ


kg

W34  Q34  mu3  u4 


 815.8kJ  1kg1871  2575.2 kJ
kg  111.6kJ
Process 4-1: Constant-volume heating

Q41  U 41  W41  m  u1  u4   0
Q41  1 kg  2583.6  1871 kJkg  712.6kJ
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 29

Example: (3.77) A system consisting of 1 kg or water undergoes a


power cycle composed of the following processes.
Process 1-2 : Constant-pressure heating at 10 bar from saturated vapor.
Process 2-3: Constant-volume cooling to P3 = 5 bar, T3 = 160°C
Process 3-4: Isothermal compression with Q34 = -815.8 kJ
Process 4-1: Constant-volume heating
Sketch the cycle on T-v and P-v diagrams. Neglecting kinetic and
potential energy effects, determine the thermal efficiency.

Q (kJ) W (kJ) Qin  Q12  Q41


Process 1-2 837.3 189.1
 837.3  712.6  1549.9kJ
Process 2-3 -656.6 0
Process 3-4 -815.8 -111.6 Wcycle
Process 4-1 712.6 0

Qin
Total 77.5 77.5
77.5kJ
  0.05  5%
1549.9kJ
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 30

Workout Problem: (3.38) A rigid, insulated tank fitted with a paddle


wheel is filled with water, initially a two phase liquid-vapor mixture at
200 kPa, consisting of 0.04 kg of saturated liquid and 0.04 kg of
saturated vapor. The tank contents are stirred by the paddle wheel
until all of the water is saturated vapor at a pressure greater than 138
kPa. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible. For the water,
determine
(a) Volume occupied, in m3, Pi = 200 kPa
(b) Initial temperature, in °C, mf = 0.04 kg
(c) Final pressure, in kPa, ml = 0.04 kg
(d) Work, in kJ

mvapor 0.04
x   0.5
mliquid  mvapor 0.04  0.04
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 31

(a) Volume occupied, in m3, Pi = 200 kPa


(b) Initial temperature, in °C, mf = 0.04 kg
(c) Final pressure, in kPa, ml = 0.04 kg
(d) Work, in kJ

mvapor 0.04
x   0.5
mliquid  mvapor 0.04  0.04
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 32

(a) Volume occupied, in m3, Pi = 200 kPa


(b) Initial temperature, in °C, mf = 0.04 kg
(c) Final pressure, in kPa, ml = 0.04 kg
(d) Work, in kJ xi = 0.5

a) V  mfv f  mgvg

b) T = Tsat
Appling the Energy Balance using the Property Tables 33

(a) Volume occupied, in m3, Pi = 200 kPa


(b) Initial temperature, in °C, mf = 0.04 kg
(c) Final pressure, in kPa, ml = 0.04 kg
(d) Work, in kJ xi = 0.5
V
c) v
m
Properties: Specific volume & that it is saturated vapor,

Interpolate values to find P2 & u2

d)

U  KE  PE  Q  W  W   U  mu 2  u1 


u1  u f  x  u g  u f 
U  W
34

End of Slides