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Petroleum Geostatistics

Multi-point Geostatistics Models

April 7, 2016
Multipoint Geostatistics - Outline

A. Geological Continuity - Training Image

B. Multipoint Geostatistics - SNESIM

C. Large Scale Reproduction - Multi-Grids

D. Stationarity for Training images

E. Simple MPS Example


A. Geological Continuity

 Fundamental question
– How to quantify geological variability?
– How to bridge the gap between “geological concepts, ideas and
interpretations” and actual 3D numerical modeling?

 Variogram:
– a mathematical equation (not optimal way to capture geology)

 Training Image:
– a single (or multiple) 3D volume (image) explicitly describing the
geological concept
A. Geological Continuity - Training Image

 Conceptual (and non-conditioned) representation of


the geologic features in a reservoir
– must be numerical (e.g. 0-mud, 1-sand)
A. Geological Continuity - Training Image

More Training Images


A. Geological Continuity - Training Image

Explicit depiction of what is down in the reservoir

Not constrained/conditioned to any specific data points


But: data (well/seismic) is used to define the concept

It is not a reservoir model, but a reservoir concept

Could be defined at any scale: pore scale to basin scale

Could be many, reflecting uncertainty


B. Multipoint Geostatistics (MPS)

 Build reservoir models one gridblock at a time


– typically for facies/large scale objects

 Instead of using a variogram to describe geological


correlation, a training image is used

 Varigrom measures correlation of 2 points in space,


MPS measues the correlation of multiple points
SNESIM: The basic algorithm
Training image
1. Scan the training image using a
template

PA | B , G 2. Template captures different data

1 2
configurations
3
3. Data events organized in a search tree

Simulation grid

data 1. Define “data


replicates in theevent” (neighborhood around
training
central node using template)
event image ( 2/3 sand ratio)
2. Draw from search tree by matching
neighborhood
(Strebelle, 2002)
B. Multipoint Geostatisitcs - SNESIM
1. Randomly Visit a Block
2. Calculate Probability
– P(A|B)
A = “event occurs” (e.g. sand occurs at a location)
B = conditioning data (well data & geologic information & previously
simulated data)
3. Randomly Draw a Value
Channel Sand

Background Mud ?
? Unknown Location

Data Configuration
B. Multipoint Geostatisitcs - SNESIM
Data Configuration
Training Image
?

?
A = Channel Sand
?
Replicates = # of times the
data configuration occurs
in the TI ?
?

Pr(A | B) = ???
Black/Total
A) 1/4 (Strebelle, 2000)
B) 3/4
C) 1/2
B. Multipoint Geostatisitcs - SNESIM
1. Randomly Visit a Block
2. Calculate Probability
– P(A|B)
A = “event occurs” (e.g. sand occurs at a location)
B = conditioning data (well data & geologic information)
3. Randomly Draw a Value
P(A|B) = 0.75

Mud Sand
B. Multipoint Geostatisitcs - SNESIM
1. Randomly Visit a Block
2. Calculate Probability
– P(A|B)
A = “event occurs” (e.g. sand occurs at a location)
B = conditioning data (well data & geologic information)
3. Randomly Draw a Value
4. Put Value in Block and
Retain for Subsequent
Data Configurations ?
5. Go to next block and
repeat steps 2-5

Data Configuration
B. Multipoint Geostatisitcs - SNESIM
Data Configuration
Training Image
?

A = Channel Sand

PA | B 
1
5
Replicates = # of times the
data configuration occurs
in the TI
B. Multipoint Geostatisitcs - SNESIM
1. Randomly Visit a Block
2. Calculate Probability
– P(A|B)
A = “event occurs” (e.g. sand occurs at a location)
B = conditioning data (well data & geologic information)
3. Randomly Draw a Value
4. Put Value in Block and
Retain for Subsequent
Data Configurations
5. Go to next block and
repeat steps 2-5

(recall sequential simulation paradigms)


Class Example
Training Image
Data Configuration

Reservoir Model
P(A|B) = ____
(A=black square)
2
Random #1 = 0.72
Node 1 = ____ 1
Random #2 = 0.56
Node 2 = ____
Class Example
Training Image
Data Configuration

Reservoir Model
P(A|B) = ____
(A=black square)
2
Random #1 = 0.72
Node 1 = ____ 1
Random #2 = 0.56
Node 2 = ____
Implementation Note - Store probabilities
Training image
Data template
(data search neighborhood)

Search tree
14 11
Construction requires scanning
training image one single time
5 7 5 3

3 1 2 5 3 0 1 1
Minimizes memory demand

1 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 Allows retrieving all training


Probabilities for the template
1 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 adopted!
Search tree example
Training image Search neighborhood
5
4
1
3
4u2
2
3
j=1
i =1 2 3 4 5 Search tree

Level 0 (no CD) u 14 11 u

Level 1 (1 CD) 1 1 1 1
u 5 7
u u 5 3
u
.
. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
. u2 3 1 u2 u2 2 5 u2 u2 3 0 u2 u2 1 1 u2
.
1 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 1 1
. u 2 u2
. 3 3
Level 4 (4 CD) 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 1
4u2
3
C. Large Scale Continuity

 It is difficult to reproduce large scale continuity


 To capture the details of the very continuous and
complex channels, a large template is required
reproduction of large scale continuity

- to capture the details of the very


continuous and complex channels,
a large template is required

- yet, a large template means many


template nodes to process and that
is not feasible for real-life problems

- reproduction of large scale


continuity is not a challenge only
a training image associated with training images
solution :: multiple-grids to the rescue

in 1994, tran suggested use of multi-grids as a solution ::


instead of using one large and dense template, utilize
a series of cascading multi-grids and sparse templates

full

empty

coarse fine
template template
Reproducing geology at all scales
Freeze coarse grid nodes and use them
Training image as conditioning data to simulate finer
grid nodes
Finer simulation grid

Coarse simulation grid


solution :: multiple-grids to the rescue

coarse grid fine grid

sand non-sand unknown


Demonstrative Example
True image 400 sample data

Training image Realization


Other issues you will face

Training image must have repetitive character

Training image should be at least twice as large as largest


structures to be reproduced
Use larger training image for coarser grid
in multiple-grid simulation approach

Identification of local cpdf’s to training proportions only if more


than cmin replicates of dn are found in the training image
cmin value depends on training image repetitiveness
Stationarity
Training image

channel

shale

These are not training images

(1) Repeated patterns


(2) Location-independent
(3) Dimensionless

Stationarity
Dealing with prior proportions

Servosystem correcting local conditional probabilities


such that the final realization matches a given target
Target facies proportion Current facies proportion

p* u; blue | d n   pu; blue | d n   .p blue  pcblue  u2

u? u3
u4
Corrected conditional pdf Conditional pdf inferred u1

from training image

Scaling parameter μ proportional to difference between


training pdf and target pdf.
pcblue  pblue  p* u; blue | d n   pu; blue | d n  , as it should
SNESIM in GEMS, tab 1: general

(1) Select the grid on which to simulate


(2) Give a property name
(3) Select the number of realizations to generate
(4) The random seed
(5) The object the training image
(1) (6) The number of facies that you are simulating
(2) (7) The number of nodes in the data template
important parameter:
(3)
(4) this determines the accuracy of training
image pattern reproduction, but also the
amount of RAM you will be using
(5) (8) The search neighborhood:
determines which nodes are included in the
(6) as defined by those closest within a 3D ellipsoid
defined by the length of its major axis (3) and the
(7) direction of these axis defined by three angles
(8) (see rotation convention)
Search neighborhood

Data template
23 14 9 10 11

22 8 1 2 12

21 7 0 3 13

20 6 5 4 14

19 18 17 16 15

Elliptical search neighborhood


Example: Channel Simulations

Training Image Unconditional Simulations


Limitations

Max conditioning data


Training Image 40 60 100
Reservoir Modeling Techniques

geologic shape reproduction


increases

SGS SNESIM SIMPAT OBM FBM

conditioning to hard data


increases