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Human Bone: Functionally

Graded Material Structures with


Complex Geometry and Loading

By:
Albert Marin and Dr. Arturo A. Fuentes
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Texas-Pan American

Figure source: <http://www.biovere.com/cart/images/Real_bone_femur_left_s.jpg>.


What is a Functionally Graded Material?
 A Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is:
 A material which both its composition and structure
gradually change over volume therefore changing the
properties of the material in order to perform a
certain function(s). Thus, material properties depend
on the spatial position in the structure. The
properties that may be designed/controlled for
desired functionality include chemical, mechanical,
thermal, and electrical properties.

Note: Typical Solids Mechanics equations assume the use homogeneous


materials have uniformed properties. Significant research is being done
by Industry, Universities, National Labs, and Federal Agencies to take
more FGMs to the marketplace.

Source: Miyamoto, Y., W. A. Kaysser, B. H. Rabin, A. Kawasaki, and R. G. Ford. Functionally Graded Materials: Design, Processing and Applications.
Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic.
Types of Graded Structures
 Stepwise Graded Structures
 An example is a spark plug which gradient is
formed by changing its composition from a
refractory ceramic to a metal

 Continuous Graded Structures


 An example is the human bone which
gradient is formed by its change in porosity
and composition
 Change in porosity happens across the bone
because of miniature blood vessels inside
the bone

Note: Desired properties gradients may designed by


controlling crystal structure and crystal orientation,
particulate diameter, bonding state, etc.
Source: Miyamoto, Y., W. A. Kaysser, B. H. Rabin, A. Kawasaki, and R. G. Ford. Functionally Graded Materials: Design, Processing and Applications.
Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic.
Advantages and Challenges of FGM’s
 Advantages of FGMs
 Provide multifunctionality
 Provide ability to control deformation, dynamic
response, wear, corrosion, etc. and ability to design
for different complex environments
 Provide ability to remove stress concentrations
 Provide opportunities to take the benefits (pros) of
different material systems [e.g. ceramics and metals
such as resistance to oxidation (rust), toughness,
machinability, and bonding capability]
 Challenges of FGMs
 Mass production
 Quality control
 Cost
Example of a FGM
 The human bone is a an example of a
FGM. It is a mix of collagen (ductile
protein polymer) and hydroxyapatite
(brittle calcium phospate ceramic).
The yellow marrow consists of fat
which contributes to the weight and
the red marrow is where the formation
of red blood cells occur. A gradual
increase in the pore distribution from
the interior to the surface can pass on
properties such as shock resistance,
thermal insulation, catalytic efficiency,
and the relaxation of the thermal
stress. The distribution of the porosity
affect the tensile strength and the
Young’s modulus
Figure source: Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. By Donald L. Bartel, Dwight T. Davy, and Tony M. Keaveny.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc, 2006.
Applications of FGMs
 Current applications of
FGMs include:
 Structural walls that combine
two or more functions
including thermal and sound
insulation
 Enhanced sports equipment
such as golf clubs, tennis
rackets, and skis with added
graded combinations of
flexibility, elasticity, or rigidity
 Enhanced body coatings for
cars including graded
coatings with particles such
as dioxide/mica

Source: Miyamoto, Y., W. A. Kaysser, B. H. Rabin, A. Kawasaki, and R. G. Ford. Functionally Graded Materials: Design, Processing and Applications.
Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic.
More Applications of FGM’s

Source: Miyamoto, Y., W. A. Kaysser, B. H. Rabin, A. Kawasaki, and R. G. Ford. Functionally Graded Materials: Design, Processing and Applications.
Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic.
Human Bone: Functionally Graded
Material Structure
 The human bone has high strength at the surface as it
gradually lowers toward the inside by altering the porosity
 From an engineering perspective, the human bone is a
remarkable material having unique material properties that
has the ability to repair itself and to adapt to its mechanical
environment
Multifunctionality of Bones
 Natural
 Hematopoiesis
 Formation of red blood cells which occur in the spongy and
porous ends of long bones such as the femur
 Mineral Storage
 99% of calcium is stored in bones
 Mechanical
 Protection of vital organs
 Such as the brain, heart, spinal cord, lungs
 Developed to absorb large amounts of energy yet remain lightweight
 Support and Motion
 Bones provide a frame that is able to withstand huge amounts of
forces during motion for mobility

Source: Bartel, Donald L., Dwight T. Davy, and Tony M. Keaveny. Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 7-9.
Support and Motion

 Bones are links like those


of a truss which enable
the body to transmit
large forces from link to
link

Figure source: Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. By Donald L. Bartel, Dwight T. Davy, and Tony M. Keaveny.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc, 2006.
Figure source: Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. By Donald L. Bartel, Dwight T. Davy, and
Tony M. Keaveny. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc, 2006.
Complex Geometry of Bones
 Bones usually have a complex optimized geometry. In
fact, bones exhibit a piezoelectric effect used both for
detecting an external stress and to remodel bone
structures so that no peak stress is developed at any
point

Figure source: Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. By Donald L. Bartel, Dwight T. Davy, and Tony M. Keaveny.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc, 2006.

Source: Bartel, Donald L., Dwight T. Davy, and Tony M. Keaveny. Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 1-213.
Complex Loading of Human Bone
 The skeletal system is like a machine
that allow us to perform all types of
activities including physical work and
playing sports
 Many bones undergo combined loading
(axial, torsion, and bending loading)
 The skeletal system, as a machine, gets
damaged. Under certain loadings,
bones break and joints wear out. Our
advantage is that our skeletal system is
usually able to repair itself

Source: Bartel, Donald L., Dwight T. Davy, and Tony M. Keaveny. Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Mechanics and Design in Musculoskeletal Systems. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 18-21.
Final Remarks

 By exploiting the possibilities in the FGM


concept, it is anticipated that scientists
and engineers will optimize the properties
of material systems and new and novel
multifunctionalities will be created
Questions?