Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

THE PROBLEM AND A

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Focusing the Research, Learning from Others
OBJECTIVES
on the
agenda
By the end of this discussion, you are expected to develop
OBJECTIVES
the following abilities relative to the conduct of a research:
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
□ Distinguish the following □ Write the Statement of the
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM related terms in research: topic, Problem with consideration of
REVIEW OF research problem, purpose a prospective research design;
RELATED
LITERATURE statement, and research □ State the purpose of doing a
REFERENCING
questions; review of literature and how to
□ Explain the purpose of the select and synthesize
Background of the Study and information.
how it must be written; □ Use MS Word to properly cite
sources and indicate
references.
This slideshow presentation is
available for download through
STARTING WITH
probing a problem, finding a
R E S
focus
E A R C H
OBJECTIVES

BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY

STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM

REVIEW OF
broad subject a general the major intent narrows the
RELATED matter addressed educational or objective of purpose into
LITERATURE
by the study. issue, concern, the study used to specific questions
REFERENCING or controversy address the that the
addressed in problem researcher would
research that like answered or
narrows the addressed in the
topic study.
STARTING WITH
probing a problem, finding a
R E S
focus
E A R C H
OBJECTIVES What are good Theories to be validated, extended,
or modified
BACKGROUND OF sources of
THE STUDY
Other studies, particularly through
STATEMENT OF researchable research recommendations
THE PROBLEM

REVIEW OF
problems? National or international trends or
RELATED
LITERATURE situations to be described or
REFERENCING improved
Real-life problems, personal issues,
experiences, or situations of SHS
students
This is the description that leads the
BACKGROUND OF reader to understanding the research
questions and appreciate why they are
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY asked.

OBJECTIVES
In writing this section,
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY Introduce and briefly define the variables under study
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
cite the most important study or related literature
REVIEW OF be consistent with terms used
RELATED
LITERATURE ensure that paragraphs summarize unresolved issues,
REFERENCING conflicting findings, social concerns, or educational, national,
or international issues. This will serve to highlight the gap in
knowledge that can be addressed by doing the study.
write the last paragraph to express the intent or ultimate
purpose of the study.
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
OBJECTIVES SHS Students’ Social Media Usage and Their Attention Span
in Class
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
From 2010 to present, statistics would show that social media has
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
increased its breadth in terms of the number of people who use it
significantly. In fact, Facebook alone, as of January 2017 has
reached a record high of approximately 1,850,000,000 active users
REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE
as compared to 400 million in 2012 (Smith, 2017). This remarkable
REFERENCING
increase in social media activity has fueled the interest of various
researchers on the effect of social media usage. Social media are
forms of electronic communication devices through which users
create online communities to share information, ideas, personal
messages, and other content (Stevens, 2013).
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
OBJECTIVES Several studies have examined the effect of social media on
student academics (Matthews, 2014; Johnson & Johnson, 2016),
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY its relationship with stress (Santos, 2015; Chan, 2016), and
STATEMENT OF
attention span (Microsoft Corp., 2014; Jackson, 2016)
THE PROBLEM

REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE According to a study funded by Microsoft in 2014, people now
REFERENCING
generally lose concentration after eight seconds, highlighting the
affects of an increasingly digitalized lifestyle on the brain.
Attention span, as defined by Webster (2011) is the amount of
concentrated time a person can spend on a task without
becoming distracted.
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
Microsoft found that since the year 2000 the average attention
OBJECTIVES
span dropped from 12 seconds to eight seconds. That is less than
BACKGROUND OF the nine-second attention span of the average goldfish.
THE STUDY

STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
Foster (2014), in her narrative study on three college students and
REVIEW OF
RELATED their cellular phone addiction, explains that the extreme use of
LITERATURE
cellular phones by the participants of the study has led to their
REFERENCING
inability to concentrate in class and commit extensively to tasks
required of them. While several other studies have been
conducted to explain the effect of social media on high school
students (Brown & Black, 2012; Dela Cruz, 2014; Jacobs, 2015)
none of the existing literature establishes a relationship between
the use of social media to the attention span of senior high school
students in the Philippines,
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
The purpose of this correlational study is to determine if there
OBJECTIVES
exists a certain degree of association between use of social media
BACKGROUND OF and the classroom attention span among senior high school
THE STUDY
students’ of De La Salle Araneta University in Malabon City,
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
Philippines.
REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE

REFERENCING
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
From 2010 to present, statistics
What do you notice
OBJECTIVES
would show that social media has
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
increased its breadth in terms of about the opening
the number of people who use it paragraph of the
significantly. In fact, Facebook
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM

REVIEW OF alone, as of January 2017 has Background of the


RELATED
LITERATURE reached a record high of Study?
REFERENCING
approximately 1,850,000,000
active users as compared to 400
million in 2012 (Smith, 2017). This This is what you call
remarkable increase in social the NARRATIVE
media activity has fueled the HOOK.
interest of various researchers on
the effect of social media usage.
NARRATIVE HOOK
It serves the important function of
drawing the reader into a study.
Statistical data
OBJECTIVES

BACKGROUND OF cause the reader to “More than 50% of the adult population
THE STUDY experiences depression today.”
 pay attention
STATEMENT OF A provocative question
THE PROBLEM
 elicit emotional or “Why are school policies that ban smoking
REVIEW OF
RELATED
attitudinal responses, in high schools not being enforced?”
LITERATURE
 spark interest, and A clear need for research
REFERENCING
 encourage the reader to “School suspension is drawing increased
continue reading. attention among education researchers.”
The intent or purpose of the study
“The intent of this study is to examine how
clients construe the therapist–client
relationship.”
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
Foster (2014), in her narrative study on
What is the purpose
OBJECTIVES
three college students and their cellular
of this paragraph?
BACKGROUND OF
phone addiction, explains that the
THE STUDY extreme use of cellular phones by the A RESEARCH GAP
participants of the study has led to their
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM inability to concentrate in class and
fills a void in existing
commit extensively to tasks required of literature, establish a
REVIEW OF
RELATED them. While several other studies have new line of thinking,
LITERATURE
been conducted to explain the effect of
REFERENCING social media on high school students
assess an issue with
(Brown & Black, 2012; Dela Cruz, 2014; an understudied
Jacobs, 2015) none of the existing group or population.
literature establishes a relationship
between the use of social media to the
attention span of senior high school
students in the Philippines,
BACKGROUND OF
hooking the reader, filling the
THE
gap STUDY
The purpose of this correlational PURPOSE STATEMENT
OBJECTIVES
study is to determine if there needs to be carefully
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
exists a certain degree of constructed and written in
association between use of social clear and concise language.
media and the classroom
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM

attention span among senior high


REVIEW OF
The purpose of this (research
RELATED
school students’ of De La Salle
LITERATURE
Araneta University in Malabon design) study is (was? will
REFERENCING
City, Philippines. be?) to (understand?
describe? develop? discover?)
the (central phenomenonor
construct) for (the
participants) at (the site)
This section contains the actual
Statement of the research problem and the specific
research question(s) central to the
specifying questions
problem research.

OBJECTIVES
“This study (or research) aims In qualitative research, this is
BACKGROUND OF
to…(make congruent with equivalent to the statement of
THE STUDY
title).” a central question
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
“Specifically, this research (or Qualitative research questions
REVIEW OF
RELATED study) seeks to answer the are open-ended, evolving, and
LITERATURE
following questions:” nondirectional.
REFERENCING

Phrase questions with the data The central question is then


to be collected in mind. broken down into more
Answer the questions and specific issue subquestions or
rephrase question, if your procedural subqeustions.
intended answer does not
match the question.
Statement of the
specifying questions
problem
OBJECTIVES
This study generally aims to determine if In this research, we seek to understand how
SHS students’ use of social media the excessive use of social media has
BACKGROUND OF possess significant relationship with their affected the life of James, a senior high
THE STUDY
attention span in class. school student in a certain university in the
STATEMENT OF
Philippines, by restorying the events that led
THE PROBLEM Specifically, this study shall seek answers to his self-confessed addiction into
to the following questions: significant episodes.
REVIEW OF
RELATED 1. What is the level of social media
LITERATURE
usage of Grade 12 students of De La Central to this qualitative inquiry is the
REFERENCING Salle Araneta University (DLSAU) question: How does one typical student
based on the Social Media Usage become overly dependent on social media?
questionnaire?
Furthermore, we seek to answer to the
2. What is the attention span in class of
following sub-questions:
Grade 12 students of DLSAU?
3. Is there a significant relationship
between level of social media use and
the attention span of Grade 12
students of DLSAU?
This is a written summary of journal articles,
Literature books, and other documents that describes the
past and current state of information on the
learning from others topic of your research study.
review
OBJECTIVES

to of to
with significant
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
research question, theoretical
STATEMENT OF or conceptual framework, and and/or up-to-date research
THE PROBLEM
method; relevant to the topic; and
REVIEW OF

to
RELATED
LITERATURE to
REFERENCING of the topic;
that is developing
to knowledge in your field.
needed to
understand the study;
Literature
learning from others
review
OBJECTIVES
Although opinions differ about the extent of
BACKGROUND OF
literature review needed before a study begins,
THE STUDY
qualitative texts (e.g., Creswell, 2003; Marshall &
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM Rossman, 2006) refer to the need to review the
REVIEW OF literature so that one can provide the rationale for
RELATED
LITERATURE the problem and position one's study within the
REFERENCING ongoing literature about the topic.

Creswell, 2007
Literature
learning from others
review
OBJECTIVES

BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
Critically
STATEMENT OF evaluate Organize Write a
THE PROBLEM Identify Locate
and select the literature
key terms literature
REVIEW OF the literature review
RELATED
LITERATURE literature
REFERENCING
REFERENCING
respecting the work of others
OBJECTIVES
What are the commonly used
citation and reference styles?
BACKGROUND OF
THE STUDY
, American Psychological
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM Association – Social Sciences,
REVIEW OF
RELATED
www.apastyle.org
LITERATURE

REFERENCING , Modern Language


Association – Literature &
Humanities, www.mla.org


Humanities & Social Sciences,
www.chicagomanualofstyle.org