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“Teach A Level Maths”

Vol. 2: A2 Core Modules

10: Reciprocal Trig Ratios

© Christine Crisp
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

Module C3 Module C4
AQA MEI/OCR
Edexcel

OCR

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Reciprocal Trig Ratios
We’ve been using 3 trig ratios:
sin , cos and tan 
but we need another 3.
These are the 3 reciprocal ratios:
1 1 1
cosec  s ec  co t 
s in  c os  t an 
Tip: I remember which is which by noticing that:
• cot and tan are the only ones with t in them
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
We’ve been using 3 trig ratios:
sin , cos and tan 
but we need another 3.
These are the 3 reciprocal ratios:
1 1 1
cosec  s ec  co t 
s in  c os  t an 
Tip: I remember which is which by noticing that:
• cot and tan are the only ones with t in them
• cosec and sec go with sin and cos respectively,
the opposite 1st letters.
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
We’ve been using 3 trig ratios:
sin , cos and tan 
but we need another 3.
These are the 3 reciprocal ratios:
1 1 1
cosec  s ec  co t 
s in  c os  t an 
Tip: I remember which is which by noticing that:
• cot and tan are the only ones with t in them
• cosec and sec go with sin and cos respectively,
the opposite 1st letters.
sin cos
Also, since tan   , we get cot  
cos  sin
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

SUMMARY
The 3 reciprocal ratios are:

1 1 1
cosec  sec  cot  
sin cos tan 

Also,
sin cos
tan    cot  
cos sin
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

The graphs of the reciprocal ratios can be sketched


by finding the reciprocals of values on the graphs of
the 3 main trig ratios.
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec
1
cosec0 
sin 0
 1
 
0
x0

Asymptote
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec
1
cosec 
sin 
 1
 
0
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec
1
cosec2 
sin 2
 1
 
0
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec  1
cosec 
2 
x sin
 2
1
 1
1
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec 3 1
cosec 
2 3
x sin
 2
1
x
  1
1
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec

x A max on sin
 becomes a min
x x on cosec
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec
The graph can
be completed
x

x x using symmetry.
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec

x A min on sin
 becomes a max
x x on cosec
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  sin

y  cosec
The domain is
x  , x  n
x
 The
x isrange is
not any
x
  1 orof y 1
x
ymultiple
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

To find the graph of y  sec we could use the same


method as for y  cosec .

Or, sincey  cos is a translation of y  sin by


  
 2,
 0 
y  sec can be found by translating y  cosec
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

We get
y  sec


x
2
Asymptote ( 2n  1)
The domain is x  , x
2
  1 or ay few
The range is ySubstitute  1 values of n to
convince yourself this is correct!
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

The graph of y  cot  can be found by using


1
y as we did for y  cosec .
tan 
y  cot 

The domain is x  , x  n
The range is y
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

We may meet the reciprocal functions in an equation.


e.g. Solve the equation 4 sin  3 cosec for
0    2 .
Solution: 4 sin  3 cosec
1 3
cosec   4 sin 
sin sin
Multiply by sin : 4 sin 2   3
3
 sin  
2
4
3
 sin  
2
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
3
sin  
2
We need exact answers in radians but remember we
can use our calculators in degrees and then convert
to radians using 180    radians

So, either we can write down directly from memory:

Principal values:

 
3
or find
To fromthe
theother
calculator:
solutions, I use a graph. If, in
doing AS,you  a different 
  60     method and you are
used
happy with it, stick to it. You can3 still check your
answers from my graphs.
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
3
sin   for 0    2 .
2
y  sin
3
y
 2
 2
3 3

So,

2
  , ,
3 3
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

sin  
3 for 0    2 . 
Add 2 to 
2 3
y  sin
 4 5

3 3 3 
3
y 
2

Outside interval
So,
2 4 5

  , , ,
3 3 3 3
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios
There are 2 identities involving the reciprocal
ratios which we will prove.
We start with the identity we met in AS
cos   sin   1
2 2

Dividing by cos  : cos   sin  


2 2
2 1
cos 
2
cos 
2
cos 2

sin  1
But,  tan and  sec
cos cos 
So,
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios
There are 2 identities involving the reciprocal
ratios which we will prove.
We start with the identity we met in AS
cos   sin   1
2 2

Dividing by cos  : cos   sin  


2 2
2 1
cos 
2
cos 
2
cos 2

sin  1
But,  tan and  sec
cos cos 
So, 1 
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios
There are 2 identities involving the reciprocal
ratios which we will prove.
We start with the identity we met in AS
cos   sin   1
2 2

Dividing by cos  : cos   sin  


2 2
2 1
cos 
2
cos 
2
cos 2

sin  1
But,  tan and  sec
cos cos 
So, 1  tan 2  
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios
There are 2 identities involving the reciprocal
ratios which we will prove.
We start with the identity we met in AS
cos   sin   1
2 2

Dividing by cos  : cos   sin  


2 2
2 1
cos 
2
cos 
2
cos 2

sin  1
But,  tan and  sec
cos cos 
So, 1  tan 2   sec2 
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios
There are 2 identities involving the reciprocal
ratios which we will prove.
We start with the identity we met in AS
cos   sin   1
2 2

Dividing by cos  : cos   sin  


2 2
2 1
cos 
2
cos 
2
cos 2

sin  1
But,  tan and  sec
cos cos 
So, 1  tan 2   sec2 
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios
Exercise

Starting with cos 2   sin 2   1 find an


identity linking cosec and cot 

Solution:
cos   sin   1
2 2

Dividing by sin  :
2 cos 2
 sin 2
 1
 
sin 
2
sin  sin 2 
2

cos  1
But,  cot  and  cosec
sin sin
So, cot 2   1  cosec2 
Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios

SUMMARY

There are 3 quadratic trig identities:

cos   sin   1
2 2

sec2   1  tan 2 
cosec   1  cot 
2 2

Never try to square root these identities.


Trig Identities Using Reciprocal Ratios

The trig identities are used in 2 ways:

• to solve some quadratic trig equations

• to prove other identities


Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
e.g. 1 Solve the equation 2 cosec2   cot   12
for the interval 0    360  giving answers correct
to the nearest degree.
Solution: 2 cosec2   cot   12
cosec2   1  cot 2 
 2 ( 1  cot  )  cot   12
2

 2 cot 2   cot   10  0 Brackets !


 ( 2 cot   5)(cot   2)  0
5
 cot   2 or cot    2
1
If cot  isn’t on your calculator use tan  
cot 
To find the reciprocal, flip over the fraction
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
e.g. 1 Solve the equation 2 cosec2   cot   12
for the interval 0    360  giving answers correct
to the nearest degree.
Solution: 2 cosec2   cot   12
cosec2   1  cot 2 
 2 ( 1  cot  )  cot   12
2

 2 cot 2   cot   10  0
 ( 2 cot   5)(cot   2)  0
5 2
 cot   or cot   
1
2 1
If cot  isn’t on your calculator use tan  
2 1 cot 
 tan   or tan   
2
5
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios

2 1
tan   or tan    , 0    360 
5 2
To solve tan   c we don’t need a graph: we just
keep adding 180 to the principal solution.
2
tan      23 , 180   23   203 
5
1
tan       ( 27)  , 180   ( 27)   153  ,
2
180  153 
 
333 

So,   23  , 203  , 153  , 333 


Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
Exercise

Solve the following equations in the intervals given

1. 2 tan 2
x  8  7 sec x , 0  x  360 
2. 4 cot x  7 cosec x  2  0,
2
  x  
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
Solutions:
1. 2 tan 2 x  8  7 sec x , 0  x  360 
sec x  1  tan x  tan x  sec x  1
2 2 2 2

 2(sec2 x  1)  8  7 sec x ,
 2 sec2 x  2  8  7 sec x  0
 2 sec2 x  7 sec x  6  0
 (2 sec x  3)(sec x  2)  0
3
 sec x  or sec x  2
2
2 1
 cos x  or cos x 
3 2
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
2 1
cos x  or cos x  , 0  x  360

3 2
2
Principal values: cos x   x  48  ,
3
1
cos x   x  60
2
y  cos x Ans:
y2 3
x  48  , 312  ,
48 312
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
2 1
cos x  or cos x  , 0  x  360

3 2
2
Principal values: cos x   x  48  ,
3
1
cos x   x  60
2
y  cos x Ans:

x  48  , 312  ,
60 300 60  , 300 
y 1
2
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios

2. 4 cot 2 x  7 cosec x  2  0,    x  

cosec x  1  cot x
2 2 cot x  cosec x  1
2 2

 4(cosec2 x  1)  7 cosec x  2  0
 4 cosec2
x  7 cosec x  2  0
 (4 cosec x  1)(cosec x  2)  0
1
 cosec x  or cosec x  2
4 1
 sin x  4 or sin x  
( No solutions ) 2
1 
Principal value: sin x    x
2 6
Trig Equations Using Reciprocal Ratios
1 
Principal value: sin x    x
2 6
  x  
y  sin x
5 
 
6 6

y   12

 5
Ans: x , 
6 6
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

The following slides contain repeats of


information on earlier slides, shown without
colour, so that they can be printed and
photocopied.
For most purposes the slides can be printed
as “Handouts” with up to 6 slides per sheet.
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

SUMMARY
The 3 reciprocal ratios are:

1 1 1
cosec  sec  cot  
sin cos tan 

Also,
sin cos
tan    cot  
cos sin
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
y  cosec

y  sec


Reciprocal Trig Ratios

y  cot 
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

We may meet the reciprocal functions in an equation.


e.g. Solve the equation 4 sin  3 cosec for
0    2 .
Solution: 4 sin  3 cosec
1 3
cosec   4 sin 
sin sin
Multiply by sin : 4 sin 2   3
3
 sin  
2
4
3
 sin  
2
Reciprocal Trig Ratios
We need exact answers in radians but remember we
can use our calculators in degrees and then convert
to radians using 180    radians

So, either we can write down directly from memory:

Principal values:

 
3
or from the calculator:

   60 
 
3
To find the other solutions, I use a graph. If, in
doing AS, you used a different method and you are
happy with it, stick to it. You can still check your
answers from my graphs.
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

sin  
3 for 0    2 . 
Add 2 to 
2 3
y  sin
3
 4 5 y
 2
3 3 3 
 2
3 3 3
y 
2

Outside interval
So,
2 4 5

  , , ,
3 3 3 3
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

SUMMARY

There are 3 quadratic trig identities:

cos   sin   1
2 2

sec2   1  tan 2 
cosec   1  cot 
2 2

Never try to square root these identities.


Reciprocal Trig Ratios

The trig identities are used in 2 ways:

• to solve some quadratic trig equations

• to prove other identities


Reciprocal Trig Ratios
e.g. 1 Solve the equation 2 cosec2   cot   12
for the interval 0    360  giving answers correct
to the nearest degree.
Solution: 2 cosec2   cot   12
cosec   1  cot 
2 2

 2 ( 1  cot  )  cot   12
2

 2 cot 2   cot   10  0
 ( 2 cot   5)(cot   2)  0
5
 cot   or cot   2
2 1
If cot  isn’t on your calculator use tan  
2 1 cot 
 tan   or tan   
5 2
Reciprocal Trig Ratios

2 1
tan   or tan    , 0    360 
5 2
To solve tan   c we don’t need a graph: we just
keep adding 180 to the principal solution.
2
tan      23 , 180   23   203 
5
1
tan       ( 27)  , 180   ( 27)  153 ,
2
180  153 
 
333 

So,   23  , 203  , 153  , 333 