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Conditional Propositions and Logical

Sequence
Consider the statement
If the Mathematics Department gets and
additional $40,000, then it will hire
one new faculty member.
Definition 1. If p and q are propositions, the
proposition
if p then q
is called a conditional proposition and is
denoted by
p→q
Proposition p is called the
hypothesis(antecedent) and the proposition q
is called the conclusion (consequent).
Definition 2 The truth value of the
conditional proposition p→q is defined
by the following truth table:

p q p→q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T

Example 1 Let p:1>2, q: 4<8

Then p is false and q is true.


Therefore, p→q is true, q→p is false.
Example 2 Assuming that p is true, q is
false, and r is true, find the truth
value of each proposition.

1. (p۸q)→r 2. (p۷q)→¬r
3. p۸(q→r) 4. p→(q→r)
Example 3 Restate each proposition in
the form of a conditional proposition.
1. Mary will be a good student if she
studies hard.
Ans. If Mary Studies hard, then she
will be a good student.
2. John takes calculus only if he has
sophomore, junior, or senior standing.
Ans. If John takes calculus, then he
has sophomore, junior, or senior
standing.
3. When you sing, my ears hurt.
Ans. If you sing, then my ears hurt.
Example 3 Restate each proposition in
the form of a conditional proposition.

4. A necessary condition for the Cubs


to win the World Series is that they
sign a right-handed relief pitcher.
A necessary condition means a condition
that is necessary for a particular
outcome to be achieved.
Ans. If the Cubs win the World Series,
then they sign a right-handed relief
pitcher.
Example 3 Restate each proposition in
the form of a conditional proposition.
5. A sufficient condition for Maria to
visit France is that she goes to the
Eiffel Tower.
A sufficient condition is a condition
that suffices to guarantee a particular
outcome.
Ans. If Maria goes to the Eiffel Tower,
then she visits France.
Example 4 Write the conditional proposition
and its converse symbolically and in words.
Assuming that Jerry does not receive a
scholarship, but wins the lottery and goes
to college anyway, find the truth value of
the original proposition and its converse.

If Jerry receives a scholarship, then


he will go to college.

Let p: Jerry receives a scholarship


q: Jerry goes to college
Ans. CONDITIONAL PROPOSITION symbol:
p→q, the truth value is true
Example 4 Write the conditional proposition
and its converse symbolically and in words.
Assuming that Jerry does not receive a
scholarship, but wins the lottery and goes
to college anyway, find the truth value of
the original proposition and its converse.

The converse proposition


If Jerry goes to college, then he
receives a scholarship.
Ans. CONDITIONAL PROPOSITION symbol:
q→p, the truth value is false.