Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 42

BASIC RIFLE

MARKSMANSHIP

Instructor Name
TASK
Conduct Basic Rifle Marksmanship Training prior to
scheduled zero and qualification range.

CONDITIONS
Given a classroom environment, a knowledgeable instructor
and highly motivated soldiers, ready to receive BRM
instruction.
STANDARDS
To have a full understanding of the basic rifle marksmanship
techniques and marksmanship fundamentals and employ
them during the practical exercises and the qualification
range.
M4 RIFLE SYSTEM

Consists of a Rifle, a Magazine, and a


sling. It is a lightweight, gas operated,
air cooled, magazine fed, semi-
automatic and burst rate, shoulder fired
weapon with a collapsible stock.
M4 SPECIFICATIONS
Caliber: 5.56 mm
Muzzle Velocity: 2,970 fps
Weight: W/30 round magazine 7.5 lbs
Cyclic Rate of Fire: 700-900 rpm (approx.)
Max Effective Range: 500M (Point)- 600M (Area)
Max Range: 3600M
Length: 29.75” to 33”
Barrel Rifling: RH 1/7” twist
CLEAR THE WEAPON
1. Place the Weapon on SAFE
2. Remove the Magazine
3. Lock the Bolt Open
4. Check the Ejection Port and Chamber
for ammo
5. With Selector Lever on SAFE, let the
bolt go forward
DISASSEMBLY
1. Clear your weapon.
2. Remove sling.
CAUTION
Do not use a screwdriver or any other
tool when removing the handguards.
Doing so may damage the handguard
and/or slip ring.

3. Place the weapon on the buttstock and press down on the slip ring
with both hands.
4. Have another a person pull the handguards free (the ‘Buddy System").
DISASSEMBLY
5. Install the hand guards using the same system.
CAUTION
Only use hand pressure to disengage the pivot and takedown pins. Force other
than hand pressure may cause damage to the weapon and replacement of
the weapon would be required. Only push the pivot and takedown pins far
enough to disengage the upper receiver from the lower receiver.
6. Push takedown pin as far as it will go. Pivot upper receiver from lower
receiver.
DISASSEMBLY
7. Push receiver pivot pin as far as it will go.
8. Separate upper and lower receivers.
CAUTION
Do not fully remove the round nuts from the threaded studs. The threaded studs
are flared on the end to prohibit removal. However, if the nuts are inadvertently
removed, they may be reinstalled.
9. If your weapon is equipped with a removable carrying handle assembly,
loosen the round nuts on the left side of the carrying handle, approximately 4
turns. Loosen the clamping bar from the left side of the upper receiver and Iift
off the carrying handle assembly.
DISASSEMBLY

10. Pull back charging handle and bolt 11. Remove bolt carrier and bolt.
carrier.
DISASSEMBLY

12. Remove charging handle. 13. Remove firing pin retaining pin.
DISASSEMBLY

14. Push in bolt assembly to locked 15. Drop firing pin out rear of bolt
carrier.
DISASSEMBLY

16. Remove bolt cam pin. 17. Remove bolt assembly from carrier.
DISASSEMBLY

18. Remove extractor pin.


NOTE
Do not separate spring 19. Remove extractor and spring
assembly from extractor. assembly.
DISASSEMBLY

20. Press in buffer, depress 21. Remove buffer and action spring
retainer, and release buffer.
DISASSEMBLY

22. CARBINE ONLY 23. Grasp the lock release lever in the area
Fully extend butt stock assembly. of the retaining nut, pull downward, and slide
buttstock to the rear to separate the
buttstock assembly from the lower receiver
extension.
Upper Receiver
CLEANING
All areas of powder fouling, corrosion, dirt, and rust.
Bore and chamber
Locking Lugs
Gas tube
Bolt Carrier Group
Outer and inner surfaces
Carrier Key
Firing pin and recess
Locking lugs and bolt
Lower Receiver Group
All areas of powder fouling, corrosion and dirt.
Wipe dirt from trigger mechanism
Clean buffer, buffer spring and inside lower receiver extension
Ejector
INSPECT
1. Inspect hand guards (1) for cracks, broken front or rear tabs and loose heat shields.
2. Inspect front sight post (2) for straightness and check depression of the front detent.
3. Inspect compensator (3) for looseness.
4. Inspect barrel (4) for straightness, cracks or burrs.
5. Inspect charging handle (5) for cracks bends or breaks.
6. Inspect rear sight assembly (6) for the capability to adjust windage and elevation and
the spring should retain the short range or long range sight in position.
7. Inspect gas tube (7) for bends or retention to barrel.

UPPER
RECEIVER
AND BARREL
ASSEMBLY
INSPECT
1. Inspect bolt cam pin (1) for cracking or chipping.
BOLT AND BOLT
CARRIER
2. Inspect firing pin (2) for bends, cracks or sharp or blunted tip.
3. Inspect for missing or broken gas rings (3). ASSEMBLY
4. lnspect bolt cam pin area (4) for cracking or chipping.
5. Inspect locking lugs (5) for cracking or chipping. Inspect bolt face (6) for excessive
pitting.
6. Inspect extractor assembly (7) for missing extractor spring assembly with insert and for
chipped or broken edges on the lip which engages the cartridge rim.
7. Inspect firing pin retaining pin (8) to determine if bent or badly worn.
8. Inspect bolt carrier for loose bolt carrier key (9).
9. Inspect for cracking or chipping in cam pin hole area (10).
INSPECT
1. Inspect buffer (1) for cracks or damage. LOWER RECIEVER
2. Inspect buffer spring (2) for kinks.
3. Inspect buttstock (3) for broken butt plate or cracks. AND BUTTSTOCK
4. Inspect for bent or broken selector lever (4). ASSEMBLY
5. Inspect rifle grips (5) for cracks or damage.
6. Inspect for broken or bent trigger (6).
7. Visually inspect the inside parts of the lower receiver (7) for broken or missing parts.
LUBRICATE
LIGHTLY LUBE
- Barely Visible to the Eye
HEAVY LUBE
- Heavy Enough So That It Can Be Spread With Your Finger

UPPER RECEIVER (Lightly)


- 2-3 drops to front detent locking lugs

LOWER RECEIVER
- Take down pins and moving parts of lower receiver (generous)
- Buffer and buffer spring (lightly)

BOLT CARRIER GROUP


- Bolt, Cam pin and firing pin retaining pin (generous)
- Slide and cam pin area (generous)
LUBRICATE (cont’d)
BOLT CARRIER GROUP
- Firing Pin (light)
- Extractor and pin (light)
- Charging handle (light)
- Carrier surfaces (light)
MAGAZINE
- Tube
- Spring (lightly lubricate the spring)
- Follower (don’t remove from the spring)
M4 Functions Check
1. Place the selector lever on SAFE.
2. Pull charging handle to the rear and release.
3. Pull the trigger. The hammer should not fall.
4. Place the selector on SEMI.
5. Pull the trigger. The hammer should fall.
6. Hold the trigger to the rear and charge the weapon.
7. Release the trigger with a slow motion until the trigger is forward.
8. Pull the trigger the hammer should fall.
9. Place selector lever on BURST.
10. Charge the weapon and squeeze trigger. The hammer should fall.
11. Hold the trigger to the rear, pull the charging handle to the rear and
release it three times.
12. Release the trigger, squeeze the trigger, the hammer should fall.
AMMUNITION
BALL M 193
BALL M 855 (Green Tip)
DUMMY (Crimped Casing)
TRACER (red tips)
BLANK (violet tip)
IMMEDIATE ACTION

“ SPORTS ”
IMMEDIATE ACTION
S -- Slap up on the Magazine
P -- Pull the Charging Handle
O -- Observe the Chamber
R -- Release the Charging Handle
T -- Tap the Forward Assist
S -- Squeeze the Trigger
PreMarksmanship
Training

Instructor Name
Pre-Marksmanship Training
MARKSMANSHIP FUNDEMENTALS

1. Steady Position
2. Aim
3. Breathing
4. Trigger Squeeze
Steady Position
Non Firing Hand: The rifle hand guard
rests on the heel of the hand n the V
formed by the thumb and fingers. The
grip is light and slight rearward pressure
is applied.

Rifle Butt Position: The butt


of the stock is placed in the pocket
of the firing shoulder. This reduces
the effect of recoil and helps
ensure steady position
Steady Position
Firing Hand Grip: The firing hand grasps the
pistol grip so that it fits in the “V” formed by the
formed by the thumb and forefinger. The
forefinger is placed on the trigger so that the
lay of the weapon is not disturbed when the
trigger is squeezed

Firing Elbow Placement: The location of the


firing elbow is important in providing balance.
The exact location, however, depends on the
firing/fighting position used. Placement should
allow shoulders to remain level.
Steady Position
Stock Weld: The stock weld is taught as an
integral part of various positions. Proper stock
weld position should allow for correct sight
alignment from the rear sight to the front sight
to the target. Neck should be relaxed allowing
cheek to fall naturally onto the stock. To begin
proper stock weld, start by placing your nose
on the charging handle when assuming a firing
position.

Non-Firing Elbow: The non-firing elbow is


positioned firmly under the elbow to allow for comfortable and stable
position. When the soldier engages a wide sector of fire, moving targets, and
targets at various elevations, his non firing elbow should remain free of
support.
Steady Position
Support: If artificial support (sandbags, logs, stumps) is available, it should be
used to steady the position and to support the rifle. If it is not available, then
bones, not the muscles, in the firer’s upper body must support the rifle.
Muscle Relaxation: If support is properly used, the soldier should be able
to relax most of the muscles. Using artificial support or bones in the upper
body as support allows him to relax and settle into position.
Natural Point of Aim: When the soldier first assumes his firing position,
he orients his rifle in the general direction of the target. Using proper
support and consistent stock weld, the soldier, rifle and sight should align
naturally on the target. As the weapon firers, the muscles tend to relax,
causing the weapon to move away from the target toward the natural point of
aim. Adjusting this point to the desired point of aim eliminates this
movement.
Aiming
Rifle Sight Alignment: Alignment of the rifle with the target is critical. It
involves placing the front sight post in the center of the rear sight aperture.
Any alignment error between the front and rear sight repeats itself for every
½ meter the bullet travels.
Aiming
Focusing the Eye: A proper firing position places the eye directly on line
with the center of the rear sight. When the eye is focused on the front sight
post, the natural ability of the eye to center objects in a circle and to seek the
point of greatest light. The firer must place the tip of the front sight post on
the aiming point, but the eye must be focused on the tip of the front sight
post. This causes the actual target to appear blurry, while the front sight post
is seen clearly. This technique is used for two reasons:

- Only minor error should occur since the error reflects only as much as
the soldier determines the target center

- Focusing on the tip of the front sight post aids in the firer maintaining
proper sight alignment.
Aiming
Sight Picture: Once the soldier can correctly align his sights, he can obtain a
sight picture. A correct sight picture has the TARGET, FRONT SIGHT POST,
and REAR SIGHT aligned. The sight picture includes two basic elements:
sight alignment and placement of the aiming point.
Aiming
Sight Picture: A technique to obtain a good sight picture is the side aiming
technique. It involves positioning the front sight post to the side of the target
in line with the vertical center mass, keeping the sights aligned. The front
sight post is moved horizontally until the target is directly centered on the
front sight post.
Aiming

Front Sight: The front sight is vital to proper firing and should be replaced
when damaged. Two techniques that can be used are the carbide land and
the burning plastic spoon. The post should be blackened anytime it is shiny
since precise focusing on the tip of the front sight post cannot be done
otherwise.
Breath Control
There is a moment of natural respiratory pause while breathing when most of
the air has been exhaled from the lungs and before inhaling. Breathing
should stop after most of the air has been exhaled during normal breathing
cycle. The shot must be fired before any discomfort is felt.
Trigger Squeeze
If the trigger is not properly squeezed, the rifle is misaligned with the target
at the moment of firing.
Rifle Movement:
- Any sudden movement of the finger on the trigger can disturb the lay of
the weapon and cause the shot to miss the target
- The precise instant of firing should be a surprise to the soldier
Trigger Finger:
- The trigger finger is placed on the trigger between the first joint and the
tip of the finger. The trigger finger must squeeze the trigger to the rear so
that the hammer falls without disturbing the lay of the rifle. Proper trigger
squeeze should start with slight pressure on the trigger during initial aiming
process. More pressure is applied one front sight post is steady on the
target and the firer is holding their breath.
Mechanical Zero
Front Sight Post Flush Front Sight Base flush with the base sight
mount
Mechanical Zero
M4 Rear Sight

0-600 meter aperture


(No Marking)

Windage Knob

Limited visability and


moving target aperture

Elevation Knob set


at 6/3 for M4 Rear Sight Aperture
Index Mark
centered on index
mark
Zeroing Procedures
Must achieve
5 out of 6 shots
inside the 4 cm circle in
two consecutive shot
group attempts to
properly zero your
weapon

2
4
3
DRY-FIRE EXERCISES

DIME/WASHER
SHADOW BOX
DRY-FIRE TARGET